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Plant Reproduction

• is one of the characteristics of life.
• It is a biological process in which new
individual organisms are produced, may it be
sexual or asexual.
 Sexual reproduction involves the union of gametes
(egg cell and sperm cell) through fertilization.
 Asexual reproduction involves the creation of cloned
offspring from a parent organism.
 In plants, flowers play a major role in
sexual reproduction as it houses the
structures for this process.
 Itis composed of four
main flower organs:
 Stamen and Carpel
(Reproductive) and
Petals and Sepals
 The stamen is male
reproductive organ,
which produces the
pollen, which
contains the sperm
cell. Meanwhile, the
carpel or the female
reproductive organ
has the following
structures: stigma,
style and ovary.
 The stigma is the
sticky end of the carpel
where pollen is
trapped during the
process of pollination.
 The style is a slender
neck where the sperm
cell from the pollen can
travel to the base of the
carpel called the ovary.
 In the ovary are ovules,
female gametes, which
when is fertilized by
the sperm becomes the
seeds of a fruit.
Sometimes, a flower
has only one carpel, or
has more than one
carpel, which is fused,
it is called a pistil
• is the process of transferring
pollen from an anther to a
stigma. There are various ways
in which pollination occurs
whether through ;
 self-pollination, wherein the pollen is
transferred to the stigma of a plant’s own
 cross-pollination wherein pollen from a
different plant is delivered to a stigma of a
flower of a different plant. Pollination is
needed in order for fertilization to occur.
Compared to self-pollination, cross-
pollination can increase genetic diversity
of plants as genes from two different
individuals are shared by the offspring.
 There are different methods on how
pollen is transferred from one anther to
one stigma. Mainly, pollination is through
biotic means and among abiotic
methods of pollination, wind and water
are the main agents.
 A. Bees- rely on nectars from flowers for they food, as
such they pollinate flowers with delicate, sweet
fragrance. They are also attracted to bright colors,
yellow and blue. Red might be dull to them, but, flowers
were able to evolve by creating ultraviolet markings as
nectar guides as bees can see ultraviolet light.
 B. Moths and butterflies – like bees, detect odors and
pollinate flowers with sweet fragrance. The difference
in activity of a butterfly and a moth allows pollination of
different plants, as butterflies are attracted to bright
flowers they are day pollinators while moths, which are
mostly active at night, are attracted to white or yellow
flowers which are very distinct at night.
 C. Bats– like moths are attracted to
sweet smelling lightly colored flowers
which stand out at night.
 D. Flies – are attracted to red, fleshy
flowers with a rank odor of decaying
 E. Birds– do not have a keen sense of
smell, thus, flower fragrance is not a
flower character trait by plants pollinated
by birds. Birds are usually attracted to
bright flowers such as red and yellow.
Also, their nectar have high sugar content
which is needed by birds.
 The pollen grain that lands on the stigma
develops a pollen tube that grows down
through the style and into the ovary where
the ovule is located. The sperm travels down
the pollen tube and fertilizes the egg cell
inside the ovule. The fertilized egg called
the zygote develops into the embryo. The
ovule becomes the seed. The ovary swells
up and ripens to form a fruit. Inside the
seeds plant embryo is located.
 Fragmentation,
• the most common method of asexual
reproduction, can occur through growth from a
stem, leaf, root and other plant organ which
gained the ability comparable to parent plant.
 Vegetative propagation and Grafting
are natural and man-made processes of
asexual reproduction. Below are different
types of vegetative propagation:
 a. Stems: that grow horizontally above
the ground is called a runner. The nodes
of these plants can allow asexual
reproduction through bud growth.
Example of this is grass.
 b. Roots: swollen roots called tubers can
allow asexual reproduction. Example of
this is the swollen root of a cassava
 c. Leaves: that are succulent( ), such as

the catacataca leaf, can allow asexual

 d. Bulbs: such as onion (each skin is a
leaf) and garlic (each piece is a modified
stem and leaf) is attached to an
underground stem. Each can form a new
bulb underground.
 a. Grafting:
 is
composed of the stock (rooted part of
the plant) and the scion (the attached
part). This is usually done to hasten the
reproductive ability of a plant, grow a
selected fruiting plant, etc.
 b. Layering: like what happens to a
runner, wherein, a shoot of a parent plant
is bent and is covered by soil. This
stimulates root growth, after which, the
plants can be separated.
 c. Cutting: is done to propagate a plant
by cutting the stem at an angle of a shoot
with attached leaves. Sometimes, growth
stimulator is given.