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PAULINE ETHICS

ETHICS
- “ethikos” –”showing moral
character”
- “ethos” - custom, habit, character
or disposition.
ETHICS
- The study of morality, correct
living
- the branch of knowledge that
deals with moral principles.
- Moral principles governing our
actions
- Good or Bad/Right or Wrong
ETHICS OF HUMAN ACTS
• Human act - an act that proceeds from the
free will of a man.
ETHICS OF HUMAN ACTS
• It is an act that is deliberately performed by
one possessed of the use of reason.
ETHICS OF HUMAN ACTS
• Deliberately performed means that it is
done freely (free will) and knowingly (full
knowledge).
HUMAN ACTS AND ACTS
OF MAN
• Acts of man are instinctive, such as
physiological in nature.
HUMAN ACTS AND ACTS
OF MAN
• These are actions done under the
circumstances of ignorance, passion, fear,
violence, and habits.
HUMAN ACTS AND ACTS
OF MAN
• Acts that are performed by men without
being master of them through his intellect
and will, therefore acts of man are
involuntary actions.
HUMAN ACTS AND ACTS
OF MAN
• Acts of man can become human
acts when one employs intellect and will in
performing the act.
HUMAN ACTS AND ACTS
OF MAN

• Human acts are different from


animal acts because man by
nature acts towards an end.
ETHICS COVERS THE
FOLLOWING DILEMMAS:

• how to live a good life


• our rights and responsibilities
• the language of right and wrong
• moral decisions - what is good
and bad?
IMPERATIVES OF ETHICS
• Moral Imperative: strongly-felt principle that
compels that person to act.
• Categorical Imperative, a dictate of pure
reason in its practical aspect. (Kant)
IMPERATIVES OF ETHICS
• Not following the moral law is self-defeating
and contrary to reason.
IMPERATIVES OF ETHICS

Existence of God or Supreme


Being
IMPERATIVES OF ETHICS

Human Freedom
IMPERATIVES OF ETHICS

Existence of an Afterlife
THE LIFE OF
ST. PAUL
ST. PAUL

• 4 BC – 62-64 AD
• Tarsus, in Cilicia, modern-day Southern Turkey
• Saul, Hebrew name, “asked for”, “inquired of God”,
“prayed for” (Saul the first king of Israel)
• Student of Gamaliel
• Missionary (3 Journeys)
• Tent-maker
• Evangelist, Writer
TRI-PART PERSON
a. JEW – from the tribe of Benjamin, and a
member of the Pharisee movement
b. ROMAN CITIZEN – raised in a Hellenistic
culture
c. A DISCIPLE – disciple of his Resurrected
Rabbi, Jesus
A PHARISEE OF
PHARISEES
 Pharisee – member of Jewish sect, distinguished by
strict observance of the traditional and written law
- commonly held to have pretensions to superior
sanctity
- interpreters of the Mosaic Law and adhere to the
traditions of elders.
- SEPARATE/DETACH – considered themselves as
the most accurate interpreters of the Law
- Hypocrites (today)
- Paul as a Pharisee: GOOD student of Gamaliel
A ROMAN CITIZEN
- Pax Romana (peace from warfare)
- His parents’ Roman citizenship were given by their
employer
- He grew in a Hellenized culture: Alexander the Great
spread the Greek culture
- Greek language is the common language
- This common language helped carry the Gospel
uninterrupted among both Jews and Gentiles in dozens
of diverse cultures.
- Paul wrote and spoke Greek
- Tarsus is “no mean city” (Acts 21:29)
A FERVENT FOLLOWER
OF HIS RABBI
- Converted on his way to Damascus
- Engage in missionary journeys
- Laid out his life for the sake of his faith
- sduque@spup.edu.ph
A
Saul
meets
Jesus
(Acts 9:1-9)
Saul on the Road to Damascus

As a boy Saul had left his home in Tarsus and come to


Jerusalem to study the Jewish religion. When he grew older, he
became a very strict Pharisee.
Saul believed in the Law of Moses. It seemed to him that
Jesus and his followers dishonored the Law. Because he loved the
Law of Moses so much, Saul hated those who did not honor every
tiny part of it. He especially hated those who believed in Jesus and
longed to find some way to get rid of them.
In Jerusalem Saul mistreated and put in prison many who
believed in Jesus. He had made life so miserable for the believers
that many had fled to other cities for safety.
News reached Jerusalem that the religion of Jesus was
growing and spreading through the whole country. The more the
Jewish leaders tried to stamp it out, the faster it grew. What should
they do?
Saul became more angry than ever. “I will stop this crazy
religion
PAUL’S THEOLOGY
•Paul’s view of God’s plan of salvation

•Three periods of history


1) From Adam to Moses (absence of Law)
2) From Moses to the Messiah (Law was added)
3) The time of the Messiah (end is inaugurated,
awaits its glorious consummation, with the
parousia, the resurrection of the dead, the
judgment, and the glory of the justified believer)
Adam: the one who brought sin and death upon the
human race (Rom 5:12, 3:9)

Man: confronted by sin and death. Law only makes


matters worse by pointing out the sin and not providing
remedy. Then enters grace through the New Adam to save
the situation. (Rom 5:19, 21)

The crucified Christ, the risen, glorious Christ who is Lord is


the center of Paul’s ‘gospel’. (1 Cor 1:17,23-24, 2 Cor 4:4-5;
12:3).Jesus is the pre-existent “son of God” (Phil 2:6; 2
Cor 8:9 ), the Christ (Messiah) and Lord (1 Thes 4:6; 1 Cor
2:16; 3:20; 10:26; 14:21; Rm 4:8; 9:28,29; 11:3,34; 12:19; 15:11
)
Christ died and rose to save humanity from sin and
death (1 Cor 15:3; Rm 4;25; 5:6; 8: 34; 10:9-10; 14:15;
Gal 1:4; 2:20; 3:13; 1 Cor 15:12,17,20-21; 2 Cor 5:14,21;
13:4; 1 Thes 4:14; 5:10; Phil 2:9-10). His death was a
sacrifice to God for us (1 Cor 5:7; 1 Cor 11;24-25; Eph
5:2). He sends the Spirit to make us sons (Gal 4:6;
Rm 8:14), giving us "justification" (Rm 4:25 etc.),
"salvation" (1 Cor 1:18,21; 15:2; 2 Cor 2:15 etc.),
"reconciliation" (Rm 5:10-11; 2 Cor 5:19; Col 1:20-22;
Eph 2:11-19 ), "expiation" of sins (Rm 3:25; cf. Gal 1:4;
2:20), "redemption" (1 Cor 1:30; Rm 3:24; 8:19-23; 1
Cor 6:20; 7:23); cf. Col 1:14; Eph 1:7), "freedom" from
sin, death, self, law (2 Cor 3:17; Rm 5-7),
"sanctification" (1 Cor 1:30; 1 Thes 4:7),
"transformation" (2 Cor 3:18; 4:6; Phil 3:21), being a
"new creation" (Gal 6:15; 2 Cor 5:17) and
"glorification" (8:30; 1 Thes 2;12; 1 Cor 2:7; Col 1:13;
Eph 2:6).
Man responds to Christ’s saving action by faith and love.

In baptism, where one "puts on Christ" (Gal 3:27) and is


"sanctified and made upright" (1 Cor 6;11), "buried with
Christ" to sin and raised to a new life (Rm 6:4-5 etc.) and
incorporated into the body of Christ (1 Cor 12:13 etc.),
which is the Church (Col 1:17; Eph 1:22-23).

The union of Christians with the head and other members of


Christ's body is nourished and strengthened by the
celebration of the Lord's Supper, where Christ's own body
and blood are really present (1 Cor 11:27) and his sacrificial
death is proclaimed "until he comes" (1 Cor 11;26).
CHRIST IS THE IMAGE OF GOD (2
COR 4:4). HUMAN BEINGS ARE
DESTINED TO BE THE IMAGE OF
THE HEAVENLY MAN (1 COR
15:49; CF. RM 8:29).
PAUL’S ETHICS
…faith working itself out through
love. Gal 5:6
FAITH AND LOVE
•Faith begins with a “hearing of the word” about Christ
and his salvific role (Rom 10:17). This results in an assent
of the mind, which acknowledges “Jesus is Lord” in
one’s existence (Rom 10:9). It ends with “obedience of
faith” (Rom 1:5, 16:26), submission or commitment of the
whole person to God in Christ.

•Not merely an intellectual assent but a vital, personal


commitment, engaging the whole person to Christ in all
his or her relations with God, other human beings and
the world.
"IT IS NO LONGER I WHO LIVE,
BUT CHRIST WHO LIVES IN ME;
AND EVEN NOW THE PHYSICAL
LIFE I AM LIVING I LIVE THROUGH
FAITH IN THE SON OF GOD WHO
LOVED ME AND GAVE HIMSELF
FOR ME" (GAL 2:20).
FAITH IS A GIFT FROM GOD
•"It is by Christ's favour that you have been saved through faith; and this
does not come from you; it is the gift of God." (Eph 2:8)

•Man is free to accept or reject God’s gracious call.

•Faith is the acceptance or the response on the part of the human being
who realizes that the initiative rests with God.

•The one who does not respond is regarded by Paul as disobedient and
committed to "the god of this age" (2 Cor 4:4), hence culpable and
"perishing".

•The full sense of faith is manifested in conduct through deeds of love.


LOVE
•Christian faith is not only a freedom from the law, from sin,
and from the self but also a freedom to serve others in love
or charity (Gal 5:13).

•Love is openness, an outgoing concern and respect of


one person for another/others in concrete acts that result
in the diminution of the lover’s “self” (Phlm 9-12; Gal 5:13;
Rm 12:9-13).

•Love/Charity is the way of Christian life that is extraordinary


(1 Cor 12:31)
1 COR 13: PAUL’S PRAISE OF LOVE IN
CHRISTIAN LIFE
• Its indispensability, its characteristics, its superiority.
•Love is also for Paul the summation of the law (Rm 13:8-10;
Gal 5:14).

•More than a mere assent to monotheism (cf. Jas 2:14-26).

•The root of such love is the Spirit (Gal 5:22) and ultimately
the love of the Father; for the "love of God" is poured out
into our hearts (Rm 5:5; 8:28) and thus it is just as much a
grace of God as faith itself.
•Paul’s Ethics