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Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Topic: HVAC Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Course Instructor: Miss Ayesha Tariq Sipra

HVAC Systems

• Course Learning Outcome (CLO)

CLO3: Analyze and compare various HVAC systems for public, industrial and
residential buildings.

• Program Learning Outcome (PLO)

PLO-03: Design/Development of Solutions: An ability to design solutions for

complex engineering problems and design systems, components, or processes that
meet specified needs with appropriate consideration for public health and safety,
cultural, societal, and environmental considerations.

• Taxonomy Level

C4: Analyzing: Separates material or concepts into component parts so that its
organizational structure may be understood. Distinguishes between facts and
Equipment Used in AC Systems

• Circulation Fan/Blower
• to move air to and from the room
• Air Conditioning Unit
• Cooling and Dehumidifying process for summers,
• Heating and Humidifying process for winters.
• Supply Duct
• Directs the air from blower to the conditioned space
• Supply Outlets
• Grills – for even distribution of air in the space
• Return Outlets
• Openings in room surface
• Allow the room air to enter the return duct
• Filters
• To remove dust, dirt, harmful bacteria from air
Classification of AC Systems

AC Systems

Classified according to

Season of Arrangement of
Required Purpose
the year equipment
21oC DBT,
50% RH Comfort Industrial Winter Summer Unitary Central

Window Units:
Indoor conditions Year-round 1 TR to 3 TR. For
Required Capacity
> 25TR
kept constant for one room only
For more than one
machines proper Vertical Packed zones in a
working Units: 5-20 TR. building
For bank, small
office, restaurants
Winter AC Systems
Summer AC Systems
Year-round AC Systems

Q1: It is desired to maintain a banquet hall at 23oC dry bulb temperature and 60% relative humidity.
The outdoor conditions of air are 42oC dry bulb temperature and 21% relative humidity. Identify an air-
conditioning system, draw the schematic diagram for the process and provide an outline of its working.
Also, illustrate the process on a psychrometric chart.
(7 Marks)

Q2. A restaurant with a capacity of 100 persons is to be air conditioned with the following conditions:

Outside Conditions: 30oC DBT, 70% RH; Submission Deadline

Desired Inside Conditions: 30oC DBT, 55% RH.
28th June, 2019
Quantity of air supplied: 0.5 m3/min/person

The desired conditions are achieved by cooling, dehumidifying and then heating. Draw the schematic
diagram and analyze:

a) Capacity of cooling coil in TR

b) Capacity of heating coil
c) Amount of water removed by dehumidifier
d) By-pass factor of heating coil, if its surface temperature is 35oC. (8 Marks)
Numerical Problem #1

1. Mark Initial (pt1.) and Final (pt.2) conditions of air.

2. Draw horizontal line from pt 1. (sensible heating of air) and
horizontal line from point 2 to intersect 90% RH line at
point B.
3. From pt B, draw a constant wet bulb temperature line which
intersects horizontal line drawn through pt 1 at pt A.
4. Line 1-A: pre-heating of air
5. Line A-B: humidification
6. Line B-2: reheating of air
Numerical Problem #1
Numerical Problem #2
Numerical Problem #2

1. Mark outdoor (pt1.) and required (pt.2) conditions of air.

2. Draw a constant wet bulb temperature line from pt1.
3. From pt2. draw a constant specific humidity (W) line
4. Let these two lines intersect at pt3.
5. Line 1-3: adiabatic humidification
6. Line 3-2: sensible cooling
Numerical Problem #2
Thank you for your Attention!