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CHAPTER 21

Jose Rizal’s
Second Homecoming and
The La Liga Filipina
◦ Arrival in Manila with Sister At noon of June 26, 1892
Rizal and his widowed sister Lucia ( wife of the late
Mariano Herbosa) arrived in Manila. A meticulous diarist,
he described his second homecoming as follows:

“ I arrived at Manila on 26 June (1892), Sunday, at 12:00


noon. I was met by many carabineers headed by a major. There
were in addition one captain and one sergeant of the Veteran
Civil Guard. I came down with my luggage and they inspected
me at the customhouse. From there I went to Hotel de Orient
where I occupied room No. 22, facing the church of Binondo”
◦ In the afternoon, at 4:00 o’clock, he went to Malacanan
Palace to seek audience with the Spanish governor
general, Gen. Eulogio Despujol, Conde de Caspe. He was
told to come back at that night at 7:00 o’clock. Promptly
at 7:00 p.m. he returned and was able to confer with Gen.
Despujol, who agreed to pardon his father but not the rest
of his family and told him to return on Wednesday (June
29)
 After the interview with the Governor General he visited his
sister in the city
◦ Narcisa (Sisa, wife of Antonio lopez)
◦ Neneng (Saturnina, wife of Manuel T.
Hidalgo)
 The following day, June 27 at 6 PM, Rizal boar a train in
Tutuban Station and visited his friends in
 Malolos Bulacan
 San fernando, Pampanga
 Tarlac
 Bacolor, Pampanga
 These friends were good patriots, who were his supporters
in the reform crusade, and he took the opportunity to greet
them personally and discussed the problems affecting their
people.
 Rizal returned by train to Manila on the nest day, June 28,
at 5:00 o’clock in the afternoon. Whether he knew it or
not, he shadowed by government spies who watched
carefully his every movement. The homes he had visited
were raided by the Guardia Civil which seized some copies
of the Noli and El Fili and “subversive” pamphlets.
Other Interview with
Despujol
◦ After Rizal’s visit to his friends in Central Luzon,
he has other interviews with Gov. Despujol.
These interviews were vividly recorded in his
diary, as follows:
◦ On Wednesday (June 29) at 7:30, I saw His
Excellency. I did not succeed to have the penalty
of exile lifted, but he gave me hope with regard o
my sisters. As it was the feast of St. Peter and St.
Paul our interview ended at 9:15. I was to come
again the following day at 7:30.
◦ The following day, Thursday (June 30), we talked about
the question of Borneo. The general was opposed to it,
very much opposed. He told me to come back Sunday.

◦ On Sunday (July 3) I returned, We talked about sundry


things and I thanked him for having lifted the exile of
my sisters. I told that my father and brother would
arrive on the first boat. He asked me if I would like to
go abroad to Hong Kong. I told him yes. He told me to
return on Wednesday
Founding of the
La Liga Filipina
◦ On the evening of Sunday July 3, 1892, following his
morning interview with Gov. Despujol, Rizal attended a
meeting of the patriots at the home of the Chinese-
Filipino mestizo, Doroteo Ongjunco, on Ylaya Street,
Tondo, Manila.
◦ Rizal explained the objectives of the Liga Filipina, a
civic league of Filipinos, which he desired to establish
and its role in the socio-economic life of the people. He
presented the Constitution of the Liga which he had
written in Hong Kong and discussed its provision. The
patriots were favorably impressed and gladly approved
the establishment of the Liga.
Constitution of the Liga
Filipina
The Aims of the La Liga Filipina as embodied in its Constitution:

 To unite the whole Archipelago into one


compact, vigorous, and homogenous
body.

Luzon

Palawan UNITY Visayas

Mindanao

Aim no. 1
 Mutual protection in every grievance and
need.

Aim no. 2
 Defense against violence and injustice.

Aim no. 3
 Encouragement of instruction, industrial,
and agricultural enterprises.

Aim no. 4
 The study of reforms and putting them
into practice.

Aim no. 5
The motto of the Liga Filipina was: UNUS
INSTAR OMNIUM ( One Like All
◦ The government body of the league was the Supreme
Council which had jurisdiction over the whole country. It
was composed of a president, a secretary, a treasurer,
and a fiscal. There was a Provincial Council in every
province and a Popular Council in every town.
La Liga Filipina
(The Philippine League)

Ambrosio Salvador Agustin dela Rosa Bonifacio Arevalo Deodato Arellano


(President) (Fiscal) (Treasurer) (Secretary)

Bonifacio Mabini Natividad Bautista Salvador Dizon

Franco Paez Del Rosario Andriano Lanuza Ongjungco


All Filipinos who have at heart the welfare of their
fatherland are qualified for membership. Every member
pays an entrance fee of two pesos and a monthly due of
10 centavos.
◦ The duties of the Liga members are as follows:

◦ Obey the orders of the Supreme Council;


◦ To help in recruiting new members
◦ To keep in strictest secrecy the decisions of the Liga
authorities
◦ To have a symbolic name which he cannot change until
he becomes president of his council
◦ To report to the fiscal anything that he may hear which
affects the LigaTo behave well as befits a good Filipino
◦ To help fellow members in all ways
 On Wednesday, July 6, Rizal went to Malacanang
Palace to resume his series of interviews with the
governor general. During the interview Despujol
suddenly showed him some printed leaflets which he
allegedly found in Lucia’s pillow cases. This
incriminatory leaflets were entitled Pobres Frailes (
Poor Frairs ) under the authorship of Fr. Jacinto and
printed by the Imprenta de los Amigos del Pais,
Manila. They were satire against the Dominican friars
who amassed fabulous riches contrary to their
monastic vow of poverty
◦ Rizal vigorously denied having those leaflets in either his
or Lucia’s baggage which had been thoroughly searched
upon their arrival from Hong Kong by the customs
authorities who found nothing. Despite his denial and
insistent demand for investigation in accordance with the
due process of law, he was placed under arrest and
escorted to Fort Santiago by Ramon Despujol, nephew
and aide of the governor general. In Fort Santiago, he
was kept incommunicado, as he related in his diary:
◦ They assigned me a fairly furnished room with a bed, a
dozen chairs, one table, a wash basin, and a mirror. The
room had three windows; one without grill which opens
on a patio, another with grills which looks out on the city
walls and the beach and another which was the door
closed with a padlock. Two artillery men as sentinels
guarded it. They had orders to fire on anyone who might
signal from the beach. I could not write nor speak with
any one except the officer on duty .
Arbitrary Deportation to
Dapitan
◦ The same issue of the Gaceta ( July 7, 1892) contained
Gov. Gen. Despujol decree deporting Rizal to “one of the
islands in the South”. The gubernatorial decree give the
reasons for Rizal’s deportation, as follows:

◦ Rizal had published books and articles abroad which


showed disloyalty to Spain and which were “frankly anti-
Catholic” and “imprudently anti-friar”.
◦ A few hours after his arrival in
Manila “there was found in one of
the packages…a bundle of handbills
entitled Pobres Frailes in which
patient and humble generosity of
Filipinos is satirized, and which
accusation is published against the
customs of the religious orders”.

◦ His novel El Fili was dedicated to


the memory of three “traitors”, and
on the title page he wrote that in
view of the vices and errors of the
Spanish administration, “the only
salvation for the Philippines was
separation from the mother
country”.
◦ “ The end which he pursues in his efforts and
writings is to tear from the loyal Filipino breasts the
treasures of our holy Catholic faith”.
◦ Shortly after the midnight of July 4, 1892 (12:30
a.m.) Rizal was brought under heavy guard to the
steamer CEBU which was sailing for Dapitan. This
steamer under Captain Delgras departed at 1:00
a.m. of July 15, sailing south, passing Mindoro and
Panay, and reaching Dapitan on Sunday, the 17 th
of July, at 7:00 in the evening.
◦ Captain Delgras went ashore and handed Rizal over to
Captain Ricardo Carnicero, Spanish commandant of
Dapitan. That same night, July 17, Rizal began his exile
in lonely Dapitan which would last until July 31, 1896, a
period of four years.
REPORTERS

Clint P. Porras

Patricio Olilang

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