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Yolanda S.

Quijano, PhD
 The fundamental principle of inclusive
school is that all children should learn
together, wherever possible, regardless
of any difficulties or differences they may
 Inclusive education evolved from the
disability rights movement, and it is
critical as it retains a clear focus on
supporting learners with disabilities. It
addresses diversity in the classroom
hence, meets the various needs of
 Several researchers (Pugach and Allen-
Meares, 1985,et al) have noted the lack of
professional training in inclusive techniques
the practices for general and special
education teachers.
 Separate teacher education programs have
been identified as barrier to inclusion
suggesting problems linked to teacher
education and teacher professional
learning. Florian(2010)
 Additional Model – It involved
modifying existing courses or adding
special education content in general
teacher education curriculum primarily
in the areas of characteristics of students
with special needs and environmental
and instructional strategies for including
these children in the general education
 Infusion Model- This is characterized by
team teaching by faculty from general
and special education disciplines and
joint supervision of field experiences.

 Unifying Model(Pugach,1992)- general

and special education teachers to work
collaboratively in the interest of all
children, professional training program
must be merged.
The possible unifying concept was
advanced by Pugach (1992) and Rouse
 For achieving cognitive knowledge and

1. nature of child and human development

2. particular disabilities and special needs on how children
3. what children need to learn
4. teaching strategies related to particular types of
5. classroom organization and management where to get
help when necessary
6. identifying and assessing difficulties
7. assessing and monitoring student learning
8. the legislative and policy context
For achieving technical and practical skills
through practicum and project-based
learning which include:
1. turning knowledge into action
2. moving beyond reflective practice
3. using evidence through action research
to improve practice
4. learning how to work with colleagues
and children
5. becoming an “activist” professional
It is vital that teachers develop new ways of
believing and acknowledging that:
1. all children can learn
2. all children are worth educating
3. teachers have the capacity to make a
difference to children’s lives
4. such work is teachers’ responsibility
 Inclusive Teacher Preparation Model
- proposed by Dr. Jerry W. Whitworth (1999)
- This model provides a framework for
developing and implementing a teacher education
program that will prepare teacher education
program that will prepare teacher to teach in
inclusive educational settings.
- There are two major dimensions of the
model. One deals with the outcomes and the other
focuses on the specific program components.

Programs Outcomes must be instill in the pre-

service teacher an understanding and
appreciation of diversity.
Programs Components Strategies

Collaborative Teaching Model • Co-teaching

• Collaborative Planning
• Cooperative Learning
• Integrated Activities
• Collaborative Evaluation
• Group Process Skills
Techniques and Strategies • Accommodations
- Curriculum
- Activities
- Evaluation
• Effective Practices
• Modifying Materials
• Resources and Supports
• Instructional Arrangements
-Multi- Level Teaching
-Cooperative Learning
-Peer Tutoring
Collaborative Experiences • Multiple Experiences
• Practicum
• Student Teaching
• Simulation
• Role Playing
• Field-based activities
• Inclusion Models
Allday, Nielsen-Gatti and Hudson (2013) likewise
identified four global categories needed to
prepare successful elementary education
teachers to include children with disabilities in
the general education environment. The
following are:
 First, teachers should possess a basic
knowledge of the characteristics of students
with disabilities and an understanding of their
role and responsibility in the special education
 Second, teachers must understand how to
differentiate instruction to meet the needs of
students with various abilities.
 Third, a global knowledge-base is
effective classroom management strategy
to promote academic engagement and
pro-social behavior while minimizing
disruptions to the learning environment
 Fourth, to do this well, elementary
teachers need to learn strategies to
communicate and collaborate effectively
with special education teachers.
 Kerr& Nelso (2010) argue that the
concept of “full inclusion” should be
replaced by one of “supported inclusion”
in which students with disabilities and
their classroom teachers have access to
ongoing supports that meet their needs.
“ It is what we know already
that often prevents us from
learning.” _Claude Bernard_