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Instrument

Landing System
ILS

› An Instrument Landing System (ILS) enables


pilots to conduct an instrument approach to landing if
they are unable to establish visual contact with the
runway.
› defined as a ground-air based instrument approach
system that provides precision guidance to an
aircraft approaching and landing on a runway.
ILS

› It uses a combination of radio signals and , in many


cases, high-intensity lighting arrays to enable safe
landing during instrument meteorological conditions
(IMC).
› Assist airplane to fly along a precise path towards
and on the runway, defined in three dimensions,
during approach to land on specific runway using
guidance signals transmitted by ground equipment.
ILS

› It is defined by the International Telecommunication


Union as a service provided by a station as follows:
› A radio navigation system which provides aircraft
with horizontal and vertical guidance just before and
during landing and, at certain fixed points, indicates
the distance to the reference point of landing.
› — Article 1.104, ITU Radio Regulations (ITU RR)
History of ILS
History of ILS

› Tests of the first ILS began in 1929 in the United


States.
› A basic system, fully operative, was introduced in
1932 at Berlin-Tempelhof Central
Airport (Germany) named LFF or "Lorenz beam"
due its inventor, the C. Lorenz AG company. The
Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA) authorized
installation of the system in 1941 at six locations.
History of ILS

› The first landing of a scheduled U.S. passenger


airliner using ILS was on January 26, 1938, when
a Pennsylvania Central Airlines Boeing 247D flew
from Washington, D.C., to Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania, and landed in a snowstorm using
only the Instrument Landing System.
› In 1949, International Civil Aviation Organization
(ICAO) adapted an ILS standard developed by the
US Army as a standard system for all of its
member countries.
History of ILS
› 1958-First Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) landing
system developed
› 1966-First ILS system developed and tested at
Airport in USA
› The first fully automatic landing using ILS occurred
in March 1964 at Bedford Airport in UK
› 1968-First ILS applications installed at major
airports
› 1974-ILS systems mandated by FAA for at least
two major runways at all Regional, and
International Airports.