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IV.

American colonial period (1898-1940)


to the postwar republic (1946-1969)

Major art movements


The independence that the
Philippines gained after the revolution of
1896 was cut short with the establishment
of the american colonial government in
the philippines.
Bound by treaty of paris in 1898, spain
“surendered” the philippines to the united
states. From 1899-1913, the bloody
philippine- American war occurred, claiming
the lives of many filipinos. Beginning with the
institution of government and education
systems, the new colonial government took
charge of initiating the natives into the
american way of life, creating a lasting
influence on filipino culture.
V. 70s to contemporary
Under the helm of Ferdenand and
Imelda Marcos beginning in 1965, many
cultural projects ensued amid the
backdrop of poverty and volatile social
conditions. Amidst claims of national
chaos of emergency proportions, Martial
Law was declared on september 21, 1972.
The CCP as Shrine for the arts
At the center of this arts and culture
program was the cultural center of the
Philippines ( CCP), the premier
bureaucratic entity through which art
acquisition, exhibition making,
workshops, grants, and awards were
implemented.
SOCIAL REALISM
A significant strand that emerged during the intense political
ferment of the 70s and the 80s was Social Realism or SR, for short. Using
various mediums, techniques, and styles,SR, is a form of protest art that art
exposed the sociopolitical issues and struggles of the times.IT differs from
other realist approaches in that it is concscious with it regard for the
oppressed and underrespresented masses.Sr would tackle for example,the
plight of the marginalized,inequality,and forms of repression.IN
addition,SRs also worked collectively,and in collaboration,not only in terms
of producing murals and other art forms,but also in making aesthetic
decisions grounded on a common mass-based,scientific and nationalist
framework.
LESSON 3:THE CONTEXTS OF ART

What is context?
Context refers to settings,conditions,circumtances,and occurences affecting production
And reception or audience response to an artwork.IT is a set of background information
That enables us to formulate meanings about works of art and note how context affects
Form.
What are the different contexts of art?
We can learn to look art in a critical manner by understanding its contexts.As we saw in
Previous lessons,art anchored in a particular historical moment and situated within a
set
Of specific conditions.The contexts being discussed below are some examples that may
Shape our understanding of works of art.The contexts affecting production and
reception
Or active(as opposed to single and definitive)and tend to overlap.
a.Artist ‘s Background
The artist’s age,gender,culture,economic conditions,social
environment,and disposition affect art production.The mode of
production,which encompasses the kind of materials accessible to the
artists as well as the conditions surrounding labor,also hope the work
produced by the artists.Atraditional artists resources differ from an artist
reared in a highly urbanized environment like manila.
b. Nature
nature can be seen as a source of inspiration and wellspring of
materials for art production. The t’nalak for example uses abaca fibers
stripped from the trunk of the banana tree, the colored with red and
black dyes naturally extracted from roots and leaves of plants. Using a
backtrap loom,the weaver produces t’nalak designs including stylized
forms inspired by nature.
c. Everyday life
Philippine traditional art has always been an
intergral part of daily life. Its significance lies only in
its aesthetic appearance but also in its functionality
and its value to the community that produced it.
Because traditional forms may also be used in daily
private situations, it is experienced more intimately
and engaged many sense simultaneously.
d. Society, Politics and economy, and history
Although art is form of expression, we discern
that throughout its history, the works are not always
created out of the artists full volition. As we have
learned in the previous lessons, the artist’s creative
process is affected if not compromised by patronage,
such as of the state or the church.
e. Mode of Reception
Aside from considering our personal identity as
a perceiver of art as well as the context discussed
above, it is also important to note when, where, and
how art is encountered. Most often, art is
encountered via the museum: arranged and
categorized before a public for the purpose of
education and leisure.
Lesson 4:
The contemporary in in traditional art:
Gawad sa manlilikha ng bayan (GAMABA)
How does tradition become contemporary, and contemporary
traditional?
- Teofilo Garcia, a 2012 awardee is a farmer in the town of San
Quitin, a municipality in Abra Province, better known for trending a plot
of land filled with enlarge upo or gourd. After planting the upo in
november and harvesting the mature fruit during the summer months
of March to May, Garcia would tranform the harvest into durable hats
protecting people, especially farmers exposed for ling hours under the
heat of the sun