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Doing

Philosophy
CHAPTER 1
The Meaning of
Philosophy
LESSON 1
PHILOSOPHY
• Two Greek words
• Philo – loving
• Sophia – wisdom
• It means “the love of wisdom.”
• It was first utilized by the Greek thinker
Pythagoras.
• It is also defined as the science that by
natural light of reason studies the first
causes or highest principles of all things.
A Sense of Wonder
• Philosophy begins with wonder.
• Whenever we ponder on these
thoughts, ideas, standards,
hypotheses, ethics or methods for
living, we are doing philosophy.
• Each one of us has his/her own
“philosophy.”
A Rational and Critical
Enterprise
• As a rational enterprise, philosophy
seeks to eradicate from our
perspectives every taint and trace of
ignorance, superstition, prejudice,
blind acceptance of ideas, and any
other form of irrationality.
• As with Socrates, the accent in all
philosophy clearly falls on reason and
criticism.
A Rational and Critical
Enterprise
• Nonrational – different from and maybe
higher than experience or reason
• Ultimate presuppositions – known with
certainty as the foundation of all of our
other ideas but which themselves cannot
be proved. This view is known as
“foundationalism.”
• Foundationalism – from a purely logical
standpoint not everything can be argued
lest there never be an end to the arguing
• Philosophy is an attempt to think
rationally and critically about life’s most
urgent questions.

• “The unexamined life is not worth


living.” by Socrates
• The ultimate philosophical concern

• Reason has its limits and the role played


by the nonrational is itself a good
philosophical question.
AREAS OF
PHILOSOPHY
LESSON 2
METAPHYSICS
• Greek word
• Meta – after or beyond
• Phusi – nature
• It studies reality, seeking its ultimate
causes in an absolute sense
• “What is real?”
• It seeks the most intimate aspect of
every reality – its being
EPISTEMOLOGY
• Greek word
• Episteme – “knowledge”
• Logos – “study of” or “theory of”
• The study or theory of knowledge
• “How do we know?”
VALUE THEORY
• The investigation of something worth
significant.
• “What is value?”
ETHICS
• Greek word
• Ethos – customs
• It is concerned with a particular kind of
value, specifically esteem, as it applies
to individual actions, decisions and
relations
• “What is morally good?” and “What is
right?”
AESTHETICS
• Greed word
• Aisthetikos – one who is perceptive
of things through his sensations,
feelings, and intuitions
• The study of a particular kind of value
such as the values which are part of
the arts and our experience of beauty
• “What is art?”
LOGIC
• The study of principles by which we
distinguish sound from unsound
reasoning and of different types of
reasoning.
• It is the formulation of the standards of
right thinking
Areas of Philosophy
1. Metaphysics
2. Epistemology
3. Value Theory
4. Ethics
5. Aesthetics
6. Logic
The Importance of
Studying
Philosophy
LESSON 3
4 Reasons for Studying
Philosophy
1. To enhance our critical thinking skills
2. To improve comprehension
3. To upgrade our lives
4. To liberate us
Critical Thinking Made
Sharper
• In studying philosophy…
• It allows us to contemplate carefully and
clearly about critical issues.
• We learn to pause from our everyday
thinking and ask greater questions that
support our thoughts.
• It hones our analytical capacities,
empowering us to recognize and assess
our strengths and weaknesses in any
position.
Expand Comprehension
• In studying philosophy…
• It helps us to elucidate issues, segregate
among choices, and settle on better
choices.
• It improves our comprehension of the
daily human issues and helps us make
level-headed choices in insignificant life
issues.
Living a Better Life
• In studying philosophy…
• It upgrades our lives through
broadening the horizon of our reality
beyond our private interest
• It upgrades our lives by reinforcing
the foundation on which a
specifically fulfilling philosophy of life
can be created.
Toward Freedom
• In studying philosophy…
• It helps us enter the foundation of
our responsibilities by allowing us to
study and substantiate or supplant
our own convictions.
The Philosopher
LESSON 4
PHILOSOPHER
• One who perceives in some measure
the ways in which the various
experiences and awareness of
existence form a pattern of meaning.
• To be a philosopher involves striving
after wisdom, not possessing it.
Types of Philosophers
1. ORAL PHILOSOPHER
• No formal training on or studied
philosophy in school
• Claims to be a philosopher
• Able to recognize the philosopher
within himself and benefits from
philosophizing at own level
• Creates enthusiasm by having people
argue about it
Types of Philosophers
2. STREET PHILOSOPHER
• Pretends to be brimming with
knowledge and wisdom
• Keep his listeners entranced with half-
baked theories, poorly-thought-out
solutions to everything, conspiracy
theories and the like
Types of Philosophers
3. AMATEUR PHILOSOPHER
• Studies philosophy for own satisfaction
and it made him become consciously
aware of his ignorance of the subject
• Best of this kind – like Socrates
• Worst of this kind – like street
philosophers
Types of Philosophers
4. STUDENT PHILOSOPHER
• Studied philosophy in school, college or
university
• Might never become a true philosopher
unless figures out how to utilize own
knowledge in positive and pragmatic
ways
Types of Philosophers
5. ACADEMIC PHILOSOPHER
• Does not earn living as a philosopher
yet a qualified philosopher at the
degree level
• His being useful as a philosopher
depends on whether he can utilize his
philosophy to benefit others other that
himself
Types of Philosophers
6. PROFESSIONAL PHILOSOPHER
• Earns a living by writing books, making
TV appearances, teaching or
researching about philosophy
• Although intellectually he gifted and
understands philosophy at its very root,
he is still not considered a great
philosopher.
Types of Philosophers
7. GREAT PHILOSOPHER
• Systematic in way of thinking
• Can thoroughly ponder his thoughts to
a more significant level than most
philosophers
• Almost all great philosophers are long
dead and gone.
The “Tender-minded”
and “Tough-minded”
Philosopher
• In “The Present Dilemma in
Philosophy,” William James suggested
that philosophers tend to fall into
either one of two camps – the tender-
minded or the tough-minded
TENDER-MINDER TOUGH-MINDED
PHILOSOPHER PHILOSOPHER
Reason as the source of
Five senses
knowledge
Given to the life of the intellect Oriented toward the world of
and ideas science and facts
Mind –reality of all things Matter – ultimate reality
World and history – meaningful World and history – devoid of
and purposeful any ultimate point
With spiritual dimension of
No evidence for spiritual
existence
Will is not completely enslaved
Will is completely enslaved to
to antecedent and mechanical
antecedent and causes
causes
All things are essentially unified Disparateness of things
Suspends judgment and waits for
Person of conviction and belief
more evidence