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Analyze the Learners
Analyze Learners
Matching the characteristics of the learner with the content of
the methods, media, and materials

General Characteristics
- identify your learners
Specific Entry Competencies
- know what your learners are capable of doing
Learning Styles
- how an individual perceives, interacts with and
responds emotionally to the learning
Learning Styles
Gardner says, “not all people
have the same abilities; not all
people learn in the same way.”
Information Processing Habits

• Concrete Sequential-direct hands-on

experiences in logical order
– Workbooks
– Programmed instruction
– Demonstrations
– Structured laboratory approaches
Information Processing Habits

• Concrete Random-lean toward a trial

and error approach
– Games
– Simulations
– Independent study projects
– Discovery Learning
Information Processing Habits

• Abstract Sequential-learners decode

verbal and symbolic messages adeptly
– Reading presentations
– Listening to presentations
Information Processing Habits

• Abstract Random-draw meaning from

human mediated presentations
respond to tone and style of speakers
– Group discussions
– Lectures with question answer periods
– Videotapes
– Television
State the Objectives
State Objectives
A statement of what will be achieved, not how it will be achieved

- learning takes place when learners are active, mentally
processing an idea, or physically practicing a skill.
-the verb describing the new capabilities that the audience
will have after instruction
-the performance that is to be observed by the learners
-the standard by which acceptable performance will be
Select Method, Media, and
Select Method, Media, and Materials
Choosing a Method
-any given lesson will probably incorporate two or more
methods to serve different purposes at a different
points in the progression of the lesson
Choosing a Media
-the physical form in which a message is incorporated and
- still images, text, voice, music, etc.
Selecting Materials
-modify existing
-design new
Utilize Media and Materials
Utilize Media and Materials
Use of media and materials by the students and
Preview the materials
-always preview instruction materials before using them
-materials should be appropriate for your audience and
Prepare the materials
-gather all of the equipment you and the students will need
-determine the sequence
Prepare the environment
-arrange the facilities for proper student use of the
materials and media
Utilize Media and Materials
Use of media and materials by the students and
Prepare the learners
-give a broad overview of the content and lesson or
-tell how the lesson relates to the topic being studied or
-give a motivating statement that creates a need to know
by telling learners how they will profit from the lesson
-give cues directing attention to specific aspects of the
Provide the learning Experience
-direct attention to the classroom
Require Learner Participation
Require Learner Participation
Active participation in the learning process enhances learning.
Behaviorist Perspective
-learning is a process of trying various behaviors and keeping
those that lead to favorable results.
Cognitivists Perspective
-learners build up a mental schemata when their minds are
actively engaged in struggling to remember or apply a new
concept or principle
Constructivists Perspective
-learning is an active process where knowledge is built on the
basis of experience
Social Psychologists Perspective
-interpersonal communication as the social basis for knowledge
Productive critical evaluative response

– Oneself
– Print Sources
– Devices
– Other People
Evaluate and Revise
Evaluate and Revise
Designed to detect and correct learning/teaching problems and
difficulties with the instruction that may interfere with student

Assessment of Learner Achievement

-Did students learn what they were suppose to
Evaluation of Methods and Media
-Were the instructional methods and materials
-What changes need to be made in the lesson?
The ASSURE Model

Analyze the Learners

State the Objectives
Select Methods, Media, and Materials
Utilize Materials
Require Learner Participation
Evaluate and Revise
Presentation by

Silliman University
ED21 Students