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Biodiesel Production

& Engine Performance


Testing

By Sachin Sonage
Under the Guidance of Dr. M.S.Tandale
Overview
 Biodiesel Background & Advantages
 Making Biodiesel, Glycerin Separation,
washing issues
 Chemistry of the process
 Biodiesel properties (double bond location,
viscosity, Cetane number, cloud point)
 Biodiesel Challenges (Gelling, additives,..)
 Engine Testing And Emission
The Alternative
Biodiesel is a cleaner burning
replacement fuel made from
renewable sources like new and used
vegetable oils and animal fats

Low-level blends (≤20% biodiesel) can


be used in almost any existing diesel
engine

High-level blends (>20% can be used


in most new diesel engines
 Four main production methods
 Direct use and blending
 Micro emulsions
 Thermal cracking
 Transesterification

 Transesterification
 Most common production method
 Uses vegetable oils and animal fats as feed
stocks
 The reaction of a fat or oil with an alcohol to
form esters (biodiesel) and glycerol
Technological Challenges
• Expensive feed stocks
and inefficient
production methods

• Strict standards for


product quality

• NOx emissions

• Transportation and
storage concerns
There is ample room for improvement in the
efficiency of processing biodiesel

 Development of a continuous
transesterification process

 Recovery of high quality glycerol


 Preparation Of Biodiesel
Sunflower/ Sodium
Methanol
Canola Hydroxide
(Reactant )
Oil (Catalyst)

Transesterification Glycerin

Washing

Preparation of
Biodiesels Drying

7
Biodiesel
Transesterification
While actually a multi-step process, the overall reaction looks
like this:

CH2OOR1 catalyst CH2OH


|  |
CHOOR2 + 3CH3OH  3CH3OORx + CHOH
| |
CH2OOR3 CH2OH
Triglyceride 3 Methanols Biodiesel Glycerin

R1, R2, and R3 are fatty acid alkyl groups (could be different, or the same),
and depend on the type of oil. The fatty acids involved determine the final
properties of the biodiesel (cetane number, cold flow properties, etc.)
Pictorial by Graydon Blair of the Utah Biodiesel Cooperative
http://www.utahbiodiesel.org/biodiesel_making.html
After Glycerin removal, biodiesel now just needs to be
cleaned/purified before use:
Properties of Biodiesel

 Acid Value
 Viscosity
 Density
 Flash and Fire point
 Cloud and Pour Point
 Heating value ( Calorific Value)
 Relative Greenhouse Gas Emissions
B100
B100 = 100% Biodiesel
B20 = 20% BD + 80% PD
Electric
Diesel Hybrid
B20
Ethanol 85%
Diesel
LPG
CNG
Gasoline

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160


Data from “A Fresh Look at CNG: A Comparison of Alternative
Fuels”, Alternative Fuel Vehicle Program, 8/13/2001
Relative emissions: Diesel and Biodiesel
B100 **
B20
Diesel CO2
Mutagenicity
n-PAHs
PAHs
Sulfates
**NOx
Particulate Matter
CO
Total Unburned HCs
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Percent
** B100 (100% biodiesel) with NOx adsorbing catalyst on vehicle
NOx Emissions vs. Individual Blend
PM Emissions vs. Individual Blend
CO Emissions vs. Individual Blend
Toxic Emissions vs. Average Blend
In the college (20/06/2018 )

 Read papers of Sangram Jadhav of


Extraction, Biodiesel production and
Engine testing.

 Worked under Vandan And Atul Sir For


learning the project in detail.

 Vandan Sir explined about all engines and


lab equipments
 Daily Our presence was there while
seniors conducting tests on engine

 I meet Sir On 4/07/2018

 Discussed on Project topic and new


feedstock of biodiesel

 Sir informed me about International


Conference at SVERIS college of
engineering pandharpur.
 Started Work On Preparing
Conference Paper on 07/07/1994

 Contacted BTech Girls for there Raw


material of project.

 I studied Extaction method By Reading


Papers and watching YouTube Videos.

 Literature survey and studying different


formats.
 Discussed with SVERI faculty for asking
quarries about paper format and
conference.

 Started writing paper in best possible


manner by reading referance once again

 Started