Sunteți pe pagina 1din 59

Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

Staffing

- Unit 4

1
DEFINITION OF STAFFING

Staffing is filling, and keeping filled,


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

positions in the organization structure.


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

THE SYSTEMS APPROACH TO

AN OVERVIEW OF THE STAFFING FUNCTION


HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
FACTORS AFFECTING THE NUMBER
AND KINDS OF MANAGERS REQUIRED

• Size of the organization


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

• Complexity of the organization structure


• Plans for expansion
• Turnover rate of managerial personnel

Qualifications for individual positions must be identified so


that the best-suited managers can be chosen.
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

MANAGER INVENTORY CHART


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

PERSONNEL ACTIONS BASED ON MANAGER


SUPPLY AND DEMAND WITHIN THE ENTERPRISE
SITUATIONAL FACTORS
AFFECTING STAFFING
External factors include:
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

• the level of education,


• the prevailing attitudes in
society (such as the attitude
toward work),
• the many laws and
regulations that directly
affect staffing,
• the economic conditions,
• and the supply of and
demand for managers
outside the enterprise.
SITUATIONAL FACTORS
AFFECTING STAFFING
Internal factors include:
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

• organizational goals,
• tasks,
• technology,
• organization structure,
• the kinds of people employed by the enterprise,
• the demand for and the supply of managers within
the enterprise,
• the reward system,
• and various kinds of policies
THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

• Equal Employment Opportunity


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

• Women in Management
• Diversity in the Workplace
• Staffing in the International Environment
WIPRO’S DEVELOPMENT CENTER
IN ATLANTA
• Wipro, chose Atlanta • The plan is to start
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

for its software small, but expand


development center. later.

• Around Atlanta are • The idea is to use


12 universities from local people who
which the center will know local business
draw local talents. needs.
THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

• Promotion from within


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

• Promotion from Within in Large


Companies
• The Policy of Open Competition
• Responsibility for Staffing
MANAGING HUMAN RESOURCES
AT WAL-MART
• Wal-Mart is the largest • Walmart’s handbook
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

U.S. private employer. states: “The


Sam Walton is the undeniable
founder of the cornerstone of Wal-
company, Mart’s success can be
traced back to our
• He initiated a policy of strong belief in the
paying a time and a dignity of each
half for working on individual.”
Sundays.
DEFINITION OF MANAGERIAL
SELECTION
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

• Selection is the process of choosing from


among candidates, from within the
organization or from the outside, the most
suitable person for the current or future
positions.
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

SYSTEMS APPROACH TO SELECTION


WHAT DO YOU DO AFTER YOU
RETIRE OR GET FIRED?
• Companies such as Dow Chemical encourage
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

former employees to stay in contact with the firm.


• The idea is to develop an alumni social network
by using networks such as Twitter, LinkedIn, or
Facebook.
• This may benefit the company as well as the
employee.
• There is, however, a potential downside. A fired
or laid-off employee may use the social network
for venting grievances against the company.
POSITION REQUIREMENTS AND
JOB DESIGN
• Selecting a manager effectively requires a clear
understanding of the nature and purpose of the position
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

that is to be filled.
• An objective analysis of position requirements must be
made, and the job must be designed to meet organizational
and individual needs.
• Positions must be evaluated and compared so that the
incumbents can be treated equitably.
• Among other factors to consider are the skills required—
technical, human, conceptual, and design—since these vary
with the level in the organizational hierarchy and the
personal characteristics desired in managers.
IDENTIFYING
JOB REQUIREMENTS
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

• Appropriate Scope of the Job


• Meeting Managerial Skills Required by
Job Design
JOB DESIGN
• Design of Jobs for Individuals and
Work Teams
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

• Factors Influencing Job Design


SKILLS AND PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS
NEEDED IN MANAGERS

• Analytical and Problem-solving Abilities


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

• Personal Characteristics Needed in


Managers
• Desire to Manage
• Communication Skills and Empathy
• Integrity and Honesty
• Past Performance as Manager
INTRAGROUP AND INTERGROUP
COMMUNICATION
• Intragroup • Intergroup
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

communication is communication is
communication communication
with people in the not only with other
same departments but
organizational also with groups
unit. outside the
enterprise.
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

RECRUITING

in the organization structure.


Attracting candidates to fill positions
WHERE DO CHINESE
COMPANIES RECRUIT?
• As Chinese companies become more
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

globally oriented, many now hire Western


managers.
• A number of Chinese companies are also
hiring Chinese executives with Western
experience who have the advantage of
being familiar with the Chinese
environment.
SELECTION, PLACEMENT, AND
PROMOTION
• In the selection approach, applicants are sought
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

to fill a position with rather specific


requirements.
• In the placement approach, the strengths and
weaknesses of the individual are evaluated, and a
suitable position is found or even designed.
• Promotion is a move within the organization to
a higher position that has greater responsibilities
and requires more advanced skills.
THE PETER PRINCIPLE

• Managers tend to be promoted to the level


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

of their incompetence.
• Specifically, if a manager succeeds in a
position, this very success may lead to a
promotion to a higher position, often one
requiring skills that the person does not
possess.
THE SELECTION PROCESS

• The selection criteria are established


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

• A screening interview is followed


• Formal interviews are conducted
• A candidate is selected or rejected
INTERVIEWS
Several techniques can be used to improve the
interviewing process:
• Interviewers should be trained so that they know what
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

to look for.
• Interviewers should be prepared to ask the right
questions.
– Structured interviews
– Semi structured
– Unstructured interviews.
• Multiple interviews should be conducted utilizing
different interviewers.
• Interviews must be supplemented by different other
sources.
COMMONLY-USED TESTS ON
MANAGERIAL CANDIDATES
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

• Intelligence tests
• Proficiency and aptitude tests
• Vocational tests
• Personality tests
WHAT IS AN
ASSESSMENT CENTER?
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

The assessment center is a technique for


selecting and promoting managers.
THE SELECTION PROCESS
LIMITATIONS

• Selection techniques and instruments are not


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

a sure way to predict what people will do,


even though they may have the ability to do
it.
• Testing itself, especially psychological testing,
has limitations.
• Other concerns in selection and hiring are
the time and costs involved.
HRM IN INDIA
AND OTHER COUNTRIES
• Developments in outsourcing and information
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

technology have important implications on


staffing and leading.
• Training and performance evaluation may
have to be adapted to the local environment.
• Compensation, motivation, local needs, and
requirements, as well as expectations differ
among countries.
• Companies need to adapt to the local situation.
ORIENTATION OF NEW EMPLOYEES

Orientation involves the introduction of


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

new employees to the enterprise—its


functions, tasks, and people.
ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIALIZATION

A global view includes three aspects:


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

• Acquisition of work skills and abilities


• Adoption of appropriate role behaviors
• Adjustment to the norms and values of
the work group
MANAGING HUMAN RESOURCES
WHILE MOVING TOWARD 2020
• The Economist Intelligence Unit Survey
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

– Managing knowledge
– Providing services & support for customers
– Improving operation & production processes
– Developing businesses & strategies
– Managing marketing & sales
– Managing human resources & training
– Other areas
• The contribution of the knowledge workers
critical for gaining a competitive advantage
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

MANAGER DEVELOPMENT PROCESS AND TRAINING


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

ANALYSIS OF TRAINING NEEDS


MANAGING CHANGE
• The forces for change may come from
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

the environment external to the firm,


from within the organization, or from
the individuals themselves.
CHANGES THAT AFFECT MANAGER AND
ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT

• The increasing use of computers.


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

• Education extends into the adult life.

• The proportion of knowledge workers will


increase and the need for skill workers will
decrease.

• The shift from manufacturing to service


industries requires retraining in preparation
for new positions.
CHANGES THAT AFFECT MANAGER AND
ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT

• The choice of educational opportunities will


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

expand.

• There may be greater cooperation and


interdependence between the private and the
public sector, at least in some countries.

• Companies need to train with a global


perspective.
INITIATING CHANGE

• The field force theory suggests that an


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

equilibrium is maintained by driving forces


and restraining forces.
• The change process involves three steps:
1. Unfreezing
2. Moving or changing
3. Refreezing
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

MOVING AN ORGANIZATIONAL EQUILIBRIUM


RESISTANCE TO CHANGE

• What is not known causes fear and induces


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

resistance.
• Not knowing the reason for the change also
causes resistance.
• Change may also result in a reduction of
benefits or a loss of power.
CHOOSING APPRAISAL CRITERIA

• Appraising against verifiable preselected


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

goals has extraordinary value.


• The system of measuring performance
against preestablished objectives should
be supplemented by an appraisal of a
manager as a manager.
APPRAISING MANAGERS AGAINST
VERIFIABLE OBJECTIVES

• A network of meaningful and attainable


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

objectives is basic to effective managing.


• Management by objectives must be a way
of managing, a way of planning, as well as
the key to organizing, staffing, leading,
and controlling.
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

THE APPRAISAL PROCESS


SUBJECTIVE VS.
OBJECTIVE EVALUATION

Appraisal should focus on results. But one


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

must be careful to avoid the “numbers


game”.
JUDGING VS.
SELF-APPRAISAL
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

The MBO philosophy places emphasis on


self-control and self-direction.
ASSESSING PAST PERFORMANCE
VERSUS FUTURE DEVELOPMENT
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

One should learn from past mistakes, and


translate these insights into development
plans for the future.
THREE KINDS OF REVIEWS

• Formal comprehensive review


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

• Progress or periodic reviews


• Continuous monitoring
STRENGTHS OF APPRAISAL
AGAINST VERIFIABLE OBJECTIVES
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

• Appraising on the basis of performance


against verifiable objectives has the great
advantage of being operational.
• It furnishes strong presumptions of
objectivity and reduces the element of pure
judgment in appraisal.
WEAKNESSES OF APPRAISAL
AGAINST VERIFIABLE OBJECTIVES
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

• It only appraises operating performance


but not individual’s managerial abilities.
• It is entirely possible for persons to meet
or miss goals through no effort or fault of
their own.
HOW ABOUT A TWITTER
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

• Accenture has developed a Facebook-type


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

program “Performance Multiplier.” People post


two- or three weekly goals, project status
updates, and even include photos.

• Another program, called “Ripple” lets people


post up to 140 words questions requesting
anonymous feedback.
APPRAISING MANAGERS AS
MANAGERS
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

The most appropriate standards to use for


appraising managers as managers are the
fundamentals of management.
ADVANTAGES OF THE PROGRAM
• Gives operational meaning to what management
really is.
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

• Removes many of the semantic and communication


difficulties so commonly encountered.
• Has proved to be a tool for management development.
• Has been found useful in pinpointing areas in which
weaknesses exist and to which development should be
directed.
• Acts as a supplement to, and a check on, appraisal of
managers’ effectiveness in setting and achieving goals.
WEAKNESSES OF THE PROGRAM

• It applies only to managerial aspects of a given


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

position and not to technical qualifications.

• Perhaps the major shortcoming in appraising


managers as managers is the subjectivity
involved.
A TEAM
EVALUATION APPROACH
• Selection of job-related criteria
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

• Development of examples of observable behavior


• Selection of four to eight raters
• Preparation of the rating forms applicable to the
job
• Completion of the forms by the raters
• Integration of the various ratings
• Analysis of the results and preparation of the
report
APPLICATION OF PERFORMANCE
REVIEW SOFTWARE
• The paper-based evaluation may be
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

replaced or complemented with web-based


appraisal.
• A manager may complete electronically the
evaluation form that can be reviewed by
other managers who can provide additional
inputs and by the employee himself or
herself before it is submitted to the human
resource department.
APPLICATION OF PERFORMANCE
REVIEW SOFTWARE
• The data base can then be used for
Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

identifying training needs, management


development, and for identifying those
individuals who are ready for promotions to
a position within the total organization.
• Managers who do not submit the
evaluations of their employees in time, can
be reminded automatically through the
software program.
PAY FOR PERFORMANCE

• At General Electric (GE), workers get paid


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

for performance: they are paid bonuses


when they achieve challenging goals
instead of according to a person’s title or
the length of service.
• The reward should be timely.
PAY FOR PERFORMANCE

• Cultural differences should be taken into


Copyright © 2013 by McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited. All rights reserved.

account when using variable


compensation.
• While pay-for-performance is generally
accepted in companies, the concept may be
more difficult to apply in certain fields
such as medical care.