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Media and Information

• Demonstrate an ability to examine and compare information from
various sources in order to evaluate its reliability, accuracy, authority,
timeliness, and bias.

• Determine the accuracy, reliability and value of information by

questioning the source of data, limitations of the information gathering
tools or strategies, and the rationale of the conclusions.
from different sources –

social media,
TV, Internet.
Selection Criteria
• Reliability of information

• Accuracy of information

• Value of information

• Authority of the source

• Timeliness
• Reliability of information - Information is said to be reliable if it can be
verified and evaluated. Others refer to the trustworthiness of the
source in evaluating the reliability of information.
• Accuracy of information - Accuracy refers to the closeness of the
report to the actual data. Measurement of accuracy varies, depending
on the type of information being evaluated. Forecasts are said to be
accurate if the report is similar to the actual data. Financial information
is considered accurate if the values are correct, properly classified, and
• Value of information - Information is said to be of value if it aids the
user in making or improving decisions.
• Value of information - Information is said to be of value if it aids the
user in making or improving decisions.

• Authority of the source - Much of the information we gather daily do

not come from a primary source but are passed on through secondary
sources such as writers, reporters, and the like. Sources with an
established expertise on the subject matter are considered as having
sound authority on the subject.
• Timeliness - Reliability, accuracy, and value of information may vary
based on the time it was produced or acquired. While a piece of
information may have been found accurate, reliable, and valuable
during the time it was produced, it may become irrelevant and
inaccurate with the passing of time (thus making it less valuable). Other
information may be timeless, proven to be the same in reliability,
accuracy, and value throughout history.
The following topics on libraries
A. Types of libraries - Libraries are often classified in 4 groups, namely:
academic, public, school and special. These libraries may be either
digital or physical in form.

B. Skills in accessing information from libraries - Due to the wealth of

information in a library, it is important to know the following:
• The access tool to use
• How the information being accessed may be classified
• The depth of details required--some libraries provide only an abstract of
the topic
• More detailed information might require membership or some conformity
to set rules of the source (ex databases). physical in form.
C. Characteristics of libraries in terms of
reliability, accuracy and value
• Libraries of published books are often considered highly
reliable, accurate, and valuable. Books and documents from
dominant sources are often peer reviewed. ISSN or ISBN
registration ensures that standards were followed in
producing these materials.
Topics about the Internet:
• a. Information found on the Internet
• b. Characteristics of Internet information in terms of reliability,
accuracy, value, timeliness, and authority of the source
• c. Realities of the Internet
• d. Information found on the Internet may be quite varied in form and
content. Thus, it is more difficult to determine its reliability and
accuracy. Accessing information on the Internet is easy, but requires
more discipline to check and validate. Factual and fictitious data are
often merged together. Sources always have to be validated.
the skills in determining the reliability of
a. Check the author. The author’s willingness to be identified is a good indication
of reliability.
b. b. Check the date of publication or of update. While the information may be
true, it may not be reliable if it is outdated and may have lost relevance.
c. c. Check for citations. Reliable authors have the discipline of citing sources of
their information.
d. Check the domain or owner of the site or page. The domains .edu and .gov are
reserved for academic institutions and the government respectively. Information
from such sites are presented with caution and are usually well-grounded. Site
owners may have an agenda that affects the manner by which information is
presented. e. Check the site design and the writing style. Credible sources take time
to make their information accessible and easy to comprehend.
skills in determining accurate information.
• a. Look for facts.
• b. Cross-reference with other sources to check for consistency.
• c. Determine the reason for writing and publishing the information.
Check if the author is objective or leaning heavily on a certain point of
• d. Check for advertising. Advertisers may use related information to
market their product.
following topics on the alternative media:
• a. Current popular alternative media
• b. Rise of alternative media and information.
• c. Other alternative forms of communication and distribution have
become popular. These include social media, blogs, and flash mob
performances. These alternative forms provide greater freedom and
power to ordinary individuals and are a quicker way of distributing
information. The downside is that a lot of the information being
passed around is biased and inaccurate.
• may be difficult to fully determine the reliability, accuracy, value, and
timeliness of any information, as well as the authority of the source,
literacy in media and information benefits from the development of
these skills.