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Chapter 22

Nutrition and Digestion

PowerPoint® Lectures for

Campbell Essential Biology, Fifth Edition, and
Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology,
Fourth Edition
– Eric J. Simon, Jean L. Dickey, and Jane B. Reece
Lectures by Edward J. Zalisko © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Biology and Society:
The “Secret” to Shedding Pounds
• About 50 million Americans go on a diet each
– Weight loss is a growing industry.
– Yet only about 5% of dieters are able to reach
their goal weight and maintain it for the long term.

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Figure 22.0
Biology and Society:
The “Secret” to Shedding Pounds
• More than a third of American adults are obese
(very overweight).
• Obesity is estimated to contribute to 300,000
deaths per year in the United States.
• The United Nations World Health Organization
recognizes obesity as a major global health
Biology and Society:
The “Secret” to Shedding Pounds
• There really is no trick to managing your weight.
– Add up the calories from the food you eat.
– Subtract the calories that your body burns.
– If you take in more than you burn, you will gain
– If you burn more than you take in, you will lose

• Food provides the raw materials that animals,

including people, need to
– build tissue and
– fuel cellular work.
However, food primarily consists of large, complex
molecules that are not in a form an animal’s cells can
use. Thus, the body must break down these nutrients
- digest them – to make the useful.

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Animal Diets

• All animals eat other organisms, dead or alive,

whole or by piece.
• Herbivores such as cattle, gorilla and sea urchins
- mainly feed on plants or algae.
• Carnivores such as lions, snakes and spiders
mainly eat other animals.
• Omnivores such as crows and cockroaches eat
– animals and
– plants or algae.
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Figure 22.1

Herbivore Carnivore Omnivore
(mainly eats plants (mainly eats animals) (regularly eats animals as
or algae) well as plants or algae)
The Four Stages of Food Processing

• Ingestion is another word for eating. You ingest

pizza when you bite off a piece.
• Digestion is the breakdown of food into molecules
small enough for the body to absorb. The tomato
sauce on a pizza, for example, is broken down to
simple sugars and amino acids.

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The Four Stages of Food Processing

• Absorption is the uptake of the small nutrient

molecules by cells lining the digestive tract. For
instance, amino acids made available by the
breakdown of cheese protein in pizza are
absorbed by the cells lining the small intestine and
transferred to the bloodstream, which distributes
them throughout the body.
• Elimination is the disposal of undigested materials
left over from food.

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Digestion: A Closer Look

• Digestion usually begins with physical processes

such as chewing.
• Such mechanical digestion beaks chunks of
food into small pieces, exposing them to chemical
digestion, the breakdown of food by digestive
• Food molecules that are polymers, such as
carbohydrates and proteins, are broken down via
chemical digestion into monomers.

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Digestion: A Closer Look

• The dismantling of food molecules is necessary

for two reasons.
– First, the molecules are too large to cross
membranes of animal cells; they must be broken
down into molecules that are small enough for
cells to absorb.
– Second, most food molecules – the proteins in
cheese, for example – are different from the
molecules that make up an animal’s body.

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Digestion: A Closer Look

• Chemical digestion happens via hydrolysis,

chemical reactions that break down large
molecules by the addition of water molecules.
• Like most of life’s chemical reactions, digestion
requires enzymes.
• For example, lipases are enzymes that digest fats.

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Figure 22.2

Amino acid
Cheese protein
(a polymer of
amino acids in
a specific sequence)

1 Breakdown of protein
by human digestive
Amino acids

2 Absorption of amino acids by cells lining the

small intestine; transport via bloodstream to
other cells
Human protein

3 Cells use amino acids

from the cheese and
other foods to produce
new human proteins
Figure 22.3a-2

Amino acid


Enzyme (pepsin)
Figure 22.3b-2


Enzyme (amylase)
Figure 22.3c-2

Fatty acid
H2O Glycerol



Enzyme (lipase)
Digestive Compartments

• How do animals digest their food without digesting

their own cells and tissues?
• After all, digestive enzymes break down the same
kinds of biological molecules that make up the
animal body
• In animals, chemical digestion is contained
safely within some kind of compartment.

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Digestive Compartments

• As a cell engulfs food by phagocytosis,

– a food vacuole forms,
– which then fuses with a lysosome filled with
digestive enzymes, and
– as food is digested, small food molecules pass
through the vacuole membrane into the cytoplasm,
which nourishes the cell.
– This type of digestion is common in protists, but
sponges are the only animals that digest food
solely within their cells.
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Digestive Compartments

• Most animals use a digestive compartment to

process food.
• Such compartments allow animals to digest pieces
of food that are much larger than a single cell.
• Gastrovascular cavities
– are digestive compartments surrounded by cells
– have only a single opening.

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Digestive Compartments

• Simpler animals, including cnidarians (hydras and

jellies) and flatworms have gastrovascular
– are digestive compartments surrounded by cells
– have only a single opening – for both the entrance
for food and the exit of undigested wastes

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Figure 22.4a

Gastrovascular Cavity
(compartment with single opening)


(water flea)

Hydra food particle
Digestive Compartments

• The vast majority of animals, including earthworms

and humans, have a digestive tube with two
separate openings – a mouth at one end and an
anus at the other.
• This is called digestive tract or alimentary canal
• Food moves through specialized regions that
digest and absorb nutrients in a step-wise fashion.
• An alimentary canal is a disassemply line

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Figure 22.4b

Alimentary Canal (Digestive Tract)

(tube from mouth to anus)



Interior of
System Map

• The human digestive system consists of

– a digestive tube, the alimentary canal (or gut)
– Mouth > pharynx > esophagus > stomach > small
intestine > large intestine > rectum > anus
– accessory organs that secrete digestive chemicals.
– Salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gall bladder.

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Figure 22.5


Oral cavity (mouth)

Salivary glands


Gallbladder Stomach

Small intestine
Colon of large intestine
The Mouth

• The mouth, or oral cavity, is where we ingest

(take in) food and begin to digest it.
• Mechanical digeston begins here as our teeth
cut, smash and grind the food.
• Typically, an adult person has 32 teeth, which
include incisors, canines, premolars and

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Figure 22.6



Opening of a
salivary gland duct
The Mouth

• Chemical digestion begins in the mouth with the

secretion of saliva from salivary glands.
• Saliva contains digestive enzymes like salivary
• This enzyme breaks down starch, a major
ingredient in pizza crust.

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The Mouth

• The muscular tongue

– tastes,
– shapes food into a ball, and
– pushes the food to the back of the mouth for

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The Pharynx

• The pharynx (throat)

– Intersection of the pathways for swallowing and
– connects the mouth to the esophagus and
– opens to the trachea, which leads to the lungs.

• During swallowing, a reflex

– moves the opening of the trachea upward and
– tips the epiglottis to close the trachea entrance.

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The Pharynx

Like a crossing guard at a dangerous intersection,

the epiglottis directs the closing of the trachea,
ensuring that food will go down the esophagus.
You can see this action in the bobbing of your
Adam’s apple every time you swallow.
Occassionally, food begins “to go down the wrong
pipe,” which irritates the lining of the trachea and
triggers a strong coughing reflex that helps keep
the airway clear of food.

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Figure 22.7


Epiglottis Epiglottis
up down

Pharynx Adam’s

Air flowing Esophagus Trachea Food flowing

into open closed closed into open
trachea esophagus
The Esophagus

• The esophagus
– is a muscular tube,
– connects the pharynx to the stomach, and
– moves food down by peristalsis, alternating
waves of muscular contraction and relaxation.
– peristalsis moves the food along all the way from
the esophagus to the anus.

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Figure 22.8

Esophageal sphincter

Food ball
Relaxed muscles

Contracted muscles

Relaxed muscles

The Stomach

• The stomach
– can store food for several hours and
– churns food into a thick soup called chyme.
– elastic wall and accordion-like folds, can stretchto
hold up to two liters (1/2 gallon)

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The Stomach

• Fluid in the stomach contains gastric juice,

made of
– strong acid – strong enough to dissolve nails
– digestive enzymes,
– mucus, and
– the enzyme pepsin, which digests proteins.
– At the downstream end of the stomach is a
sphincter (valve) that regulates the transfer of
chyme from the stomach to the small intestine.

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The Stomach

• It takes 2 – 6 hours for the stomach to empty after

a meal, long enough for stomach acids and pepsin
to begin digestion.
• What keeps the stomach from digesting itself?
– Mucus coating the stomach lining helps protect it
– Timing is also a factor: Nerve and hormone
signals regulate secretion of gastric juice so that it
is discharged only when food is in the stomach.
– The stomach replaces its lining once every three
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Figure 22.9

Stomach lining secretes

gastric juice (acid, enzyme
Esophagus molecules, and mucus)

Sphincters control
the flow into and
out of the stomach

folds allow the
stomach to expand.

Small intestine Food particle

Stomach Ailments

• Heartburn is caused by backflow of chyme into

the esophagus.
• Some people suffer this backflow frequently and
severely enough to harm the lining of the
esophagus – a condition known as GERD
(gastroesophageal reflux disease)
• Gastric ulcers are
– erosions of the stomach lining and
– often caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.

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Stomach Ailments

• Gastric ulcers are

– erosions of the stomach lining and
– often caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.
– in severe ulcers, the erosion can produce a hole in
the stomach wall and cause life-threatening
internal bleeding an infection.
– (The cause of ulcers was established in 1984
when biologist Barry Marshall experimented on
himself by drinking beef soup laced with H. pylori
bacteria – he won the 2005 Nobel Prize)
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Stomach Ailments

• Gastric ulcers
– Affected people can get relief by taking
medications that contain bismuth
– Most ulcers can be treated with antibiotics

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Weight Loss Surgeries

• The most common weight loss surgery in the

United States is gastric bypass.
– Staples are used to reduce the stomach to about
the size of a chicken egg.
– The first 18 inches of the small intestine are
bypassed by attaching the downstream intestine
directly to the reduced stomach pouch.
– Patients quickly feel full and body’s ability to
absorb is reduced.

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Figure 22.10

Esophagus Small stomach pouch

New attachment

Bypassed portion
of stomach

Tube through which

food is bypassed

Small intestine
Weight Loss Surgeries

– When accompanied with healthy lifestyle, weight

loss surgeries are successful in 90% of patients
– However, all surgeries carry risks (there is about
1% mortality rate)
– Patients must carefully monitor their diet to ensure
proper nutrition
– Weight loss surgeries are effective but they are
only recommended as a last resort.

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The Small Intestine

• The small intestine is

– the longest part of the alimentary canal
– At a length of about 20 feet
– Not small in length, but small in diameter
compared to the large intestine.
– the major organ for chemical digestion and
absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream.

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Chemical Digestion in the Small Intestine

• Most chemical digestion occurs in the duodenum,

the first foot of the small intestine.
• Now the small intestine takes over with an arsenal
of enzymes that dismantle food molecules into
smaller molecules.
• In the duodenum, chyme from the stomach mixes
– pancreatic juice,
– bile, and
– a digestive juice secreted by the intestinal lining.
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Chemical Digestion in the Small Intestine

• In the duodenum, chyme from the stomach mixes

– pancreatic juice,
– bile, and
– a digestive juice secreted by the intestinal lining.

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Figure 22.11




Intestinal enzymes

Pancreatic juice

Duodenum of
small intestine Pancreas
Chemical Digestion in the Small Intestine

• The duodenum receives digestive juices from the

pancreas, the liver, the gallbladder and the
intestinal lining itself.
• The pancreas
– is a large gland that secretes pancreatic juice
– pancreatic juice neutralizes the acid from the
stomach and contains many digestive enzymes
– pancreatic amylase, lipase, protease and

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Chemical Digestion in the Small Intestine

• Bile is produced by the liver and stored and

secreted from the gallbladder
– Secreted through duct into the duodenum
– Contains salts that break up fats into small
– Can crystalize to form gallstones which cause
pain and block bile secretion
– Surgical removal of gallbladder is common cure.

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Absorption of Nutrients

• In the duodenum, nutrients are

– completely digested and
– ready to be absorbed.

• Nutrients only enter the body if they are absorbed

into the walls of the digestive tract.

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Figure 22.12




A finger through a hole Food through the alimentary canal

Absorption of Nutrients

• Most digestion is complete by the time the food

reaches the end of the duodenum.
• The next several meters of the small intestine are
specialized for absorption.
• The structure of the intestinal lining (epithelium)
fits this function.
• The surface area of this epithelium is huge – 300
square meters – the area of a tennis court.

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Absorption of Nutrients

• The intestinal lining not only has large folds, like

the stomach, but also has finger-like outgrowths
called villi
• Each cell of epithelium adds even more surface
area by having microscopic projections called
• Across this expansive surface of intestinal
epithelium, nutrients are transported into the
network of small blood vessels and lymphatic
vessels in the core of each villus

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Figure 22.13a

Blood vessels

Muscle Interior of
layers intestine

Intestinal wall Nutrient


Interior of
Figure 22.13b





Figure 22.13c



Epithelial cells and

blood capillary
Absorption of Nutrients

• Normally the small intestine is free of

microorganisms, but improper sanitation can lead
to infection by various bacteria
• The disease cholera for example, is caused by
ingestion of the bacterium Vibrio cholera.
• As it multiplies in the small intestine, this bacteria
releases a toxin that leads to profuse watery
vomiting and diarrhea, which can lead to
dehydration and death.
• Primarily found in developing countries
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Absorption of Nutrients

• Cholera often appears after a natural disaster

such as a earthquake or hurricane
• When many people are displaced without proper
sanitation or water

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The Large Intestine

• The large intestine is

– shorter, but wider, than the small intestine and
– about 1.5 meters in length.

• At the junction of the small and large intestine is a

small, finger-like extension called the appendix.
– The appendix contains white blood cells that make
minor contributions to the immune system.
– Appendicitis is a bacterial infection of the
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The Large Intestine

• The colon (large intestine)

–Main function is to absorb water
–About 2 gallons of digestive juice and water pour
into the colon each day.
–About 90% of this water is absorbed back into the
blood and body fluids each day.
–The small intestine absorbs much of the water and
the colon finishes the job
–As water is absorbed, undigested material becomes
more solid as moved along by peristalsis
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The Large Intestine

–The end product of undigested materials is an end-

product called feces.
–Feces also contains enormous numbers of intestinal
bacteria, normal inhabitants of the colon.
–Some bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, produce
B vitamins and Vitamin K that are absorbed through
the colon wall and help supplement the diet

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The Large Intestine

If the lining of the colon is infected by viral or bacterial

infection (“stomach bug”), diarrhea may result
Colon cannot absorb water properly
Prolonged diarrhea can cause life-threatening
dehydration, especially among young and old
Opposite problem, constipation, occurs when
peristalsis moves feces along too slowly
Feces becomes too compacted because too much
water has been reabsorbed.

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The Large Intestine

Several intestinal disorders characterized by

inflammation (painful swelling) of intestinal wall.
Celiac disease results when gluten, wheat protein,
triggers an immune reaction
Leads to swelling and lack of nutrient absorption
Crohn’s disease, a chronic inflammation that can
periodically flare up along any part of the alimentary
Investigating the cause and treatment of Crohn’s is
an active area of medical research today.
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The Large Intestine

• The rectum
– forms the last 15 cm (6 inches) of the large
intestine and
– stores feces until elimination.

• The anus
– consists of two sphincters smooth and skeletal
muscle and
– regulates the opening of the rectum.

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Figure 22.14a

Colon of



Figure 22.14b

of small

Lk Digestive System (11.41)
Figure 22.15-4
Food into mouth

Mechanical digestion Food
Chewing in mouth
Churning in stomach

Chemical digestion
Saliva in mouth
Acid and pepsin in
stomach Stomach
Enzymes in small

Nutrients and water Small
in small intestine intestine

Water in large

Elimination Large
Feces formed in intestine
large intestine
Elimination from anus
Figure 22.UN04

Alimentary Accessory Digestion

canal organs
Mechanical Chemical

Mouth Salivary
Salivary glands Chewing
(oral cavity) amylase

Pharynx and

Acid and
Stomach Churning pepsin (in
gastric juice)
Liver, Other Nutrients
gallbladder, enzymes and water

Large Water


• Proper nutrition provides

– fuel for cellular work,
– materials for building molecules, and
– essential nutrients for health.

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• A healthy human diet is rich in whole grains,

vegetables, fruits and calcium, along with
moderate quantities of protein from lean meats,
eggs, nuts or beans
• Nutritionists recommend limited consumption of
fats and sugars (primarily to help maintain a
healthy weight) as well as limited salt.

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Food as Fuel

• Cells can extract energy stored in the organic

molecules of food through the process of cellular
respiration and expend that energy as cellular
• Using oxygen, cellular respiration breaks down
glucose and other food molecules.
• This generates many molecules of ATP for cells to
use as direct source of energy and releasing
carbon dioxide and water as waste “exhaust”

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Figure 22.16
(organic molecules
such as glucose)

O2 C6H12O6



(energy for
cellular work)

CO2 and H2O

• Calories are a measure of the energy

– stored in your food and
– used in daily activities.

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• A calorie is the amount of energy required to raise

the temperature of one gram of water by 1°C.
• A kilocalorie (kcal) is
– 1,000 calories,
– the unit listed on food labels, and
– often called Calories with an uppercase C.
– 1 Calorie = 1000 calories

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Metabolic Rate

• The rate of energy consumption by the body is the

metabolic rate.
• A person’s metabolic rate consists of
– the basal metabolic rate (BMR), the amount of
energy it takes to maintain body functions, and
– energy needed for activities.
– BMR for females is 1300 – 1500 Calories per day
– BMR for males is 1600 – 1800 Calories per day

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Metabolic Rate

– The more active you are, the greater your actual

metabolic rate and the greater the number of
Calories your body uses ach day.
– Metabolic rate also depends on other factors such
as body size, age, stress level, and heredity.
– Examples in Table 22.1 give you an idea of the
amount of activity that it takes to use up the
Calories in several common foods.
– Balancing the Calories you take in and the
Calories you expend can help you manage your
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Table 22.1
Food as Building Material

Even if you have stopped growing, your health

depends on the continuous repair and maintenance
of your tissues.
The building materials required for such work are
provided by the small organic molecules
(monomers) produced during the digestion of food.
Your cells can reassemble those smaller molecules
into the various large biological molecules
(polymers), such as your own unique proteins and

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Metabolic Rate

• Within limits, your metabolism can change organic

material from one form to another and
compensate for nutrients that are lacking in your
• For instance, if a cell has a shortage of a particular
amino acid, it may be able to make that amino
acid from an excess supply of a different amino
• However, certain substances – essential
nutrients – cannot be made from other materials.

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Metabolic Rate

• Essential nutrients – the body must receive them

in preassembled form:
– Essential amino acids
– Vitamins
– Minerals
– Essential fatty acids

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Essential Amino Acids

• In humans, eight essential amino acids

– must be obtained from the diet and
– are in different proportions in different foods.

• All eight essential amino acids can be consumed

by eating
– meat, eggs, or milk or
– a variety of plants, typically grains and legumes
such as beans, peanuts, and peas.

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Figure 22.17
Beans and other

Rice and beans Bread and peanut butter Rice and tofu
Complete meals

• Vitamins
– are organic molecules,
– are required in the diet in very small amounts, and
– usually assist enzymes in catalyzing metabolic

• Too much or too little of most vitamins can cause


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Table 22.2
Figure 22.UN01

• Minerals are inorganic substances required in the

• Like vitamin deficiencies, mineral deficiencies can
cause health problems
• For example, calcium is needed for building bones
and teeth and for the proper functioning of nerves
and muscles.
• It can be obtained from dairy products, legumes
and dark green vegetables like spinach.
• Too little can result in osteoporosis
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Mineral excess can also cause problems.

For example, we require sodium for nerves and
muscles to function, but the average American
consumes about 20 times the required amount of
sodium, mainly in the form on salt (sodium chloride)
added to processed foods.
Excess sodium can lead to high blood pressure.

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Essential Fatty Acids

• Our cells make fats and other lipids by combining

fatty acids and other molecules, such as glycerol.
• We can make most of the required fatty acids, in
turn, from simpler molecules.
• Essential fatty acids must be obtained in the
• One essential fatty acid, linoleic acid, is
especially important because it is needed to make
some of the phospholipids of cell membranes.

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Figure 22.UN05
Decoding Food Labels

• To help consumers assess the nutritional value of

packaged foods, the United States Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) requires two blocks of
information on food labels.
• One lists the ingredients by weight.
• The other lists key nutrients, emphasizing the
ones associated with disease and the ones
associated with a healthy diet.

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Decoding Food Labels

• You should note the serving size and adjust the

rest of the nutritional information to reflect your
actual serving.
• For example, if the serving size is 1 cup of cereal
but you are eating 2 cups, you must double all of
the values,
• You’ll see a wide variety of data – including
Calories, fat, cholesterol, carbohydrates, fiber,
protein, vitamins, minerals – expressed as amount
per serving and as percentages of daily value.

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Decoding Food Labels

• (Daily values are based on a 2,000 Calorie per

day diet; these values are therefore “one-size-fits-
all” numbers that should be used as rough
• If you pay attention, you’ll find that serving sizes
are often surprising: a single cookie or snack-
sized bag of chips may actually contain multiple
servings – therefore, many for calories than a
quick glance would indicate.
• Reading food labels carefully can help you make
informed choices
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Figure 22.18
Figure 22.UN06

Nutrition Facts
Serving Size 1 Cookie 28 g/1 oz
Servings Per Container 8

Amount Per Serving

Calories 140 Calories from Fat 60
% Daily Value*
Total Fat 7g 11%
Saturated Fat 3g 15%
Trans Fat 0g
Cholesterol 10mg 3%
Sodium 80mg 3%
Total Carbohydrate 18g 6%
Dietary Fiber 1g 4%
Sugars 10g
Protein 2g

• Dietary problems can cause severe health


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• Malnutrition refers to health problems caused

by an
– improper or
– insufficient diet.

• Protein deficiency
– causes the most human suffering and
– is concentrated where there is a great gap
between food supply and population size.

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Figure 22.19
Eating Disorders

• Eating disorders
– affect millions of Americans,
– are more common in women than men, and
– result in malnutrition.

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Eating Disorders

• Anorexia nervosa is self-starvation, even when a

person is underweight.
• Bulimia involves
– binge eating,
– purging through induced vomiting,
– abuse of laxatives, and/or
– excessive exercise.

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• Obesity
– is a too-high body mass index (BMI),
– is the nutritional disorder of greatest concern,
– affects about one-third of all Americans, and
– increases the risk of heart attack, diabetes, and
other diseases.

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Figure 22.20


100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260
Weight (pounds)