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OVERVIEW OF

THE FINANCIAL
SYSTEM

GROUP 1: MICHELLE SANTIAGO


R E I G H LY N R O S E T E
FUNCTION OF FINANCIAL MARKETS

Financial markets perform the essential


economic function of channeling funds from
households, firms, and governments that have
saved surplus funds by spending less than
their income to those that have a shortage of
funds because they wish to spend more than
their income.
FLOW OF FUNDS THROUGH THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM
Indirect finance

Financial
Funds intermediates Funds

Funds
Lender-Savers Borrow-Spenders
1. Households 1. Business firms
2. Business firms Fiancial 2. Government
3. Government Funds Funds
markets 3. Household
4. Foreigners 4. Foreigners
Direct Finance
WHY IS FINANCIAL MARKET IMPORTANT?

The answer is that the people who save are frequently not the same
people who have profitable investment opportunities available to
them, the entrepreneurs.

Without it, it is hard to transfer funds from a person who has no


investment opportunities to one who has them.
It is not just beneficial for the purpose of increasing business
production.
Critical for producing an efficient allocation of capital.
Directly improve the well-being of consumers.
STRUCTURE OF FINANCIAL MARKETS

• Debt and Equity Markets


• Primary and Secondary Markets
• Exchanges and Over-the-Counter Markets
• Money and Capital Markets
DEBT SECURITY
Debt securities- a contractual agreement by the borrower to pay the
holder of the instrument fixed amounts at regular intervals
(interest and principal payments) until specified date (maturity
date) when a final payment is made.

MATURITY DATE- the number of years (terms) until the instrument’s


expiration date.
Number of Years/Terms
Short-term Less than a year
Long-term 10 years or longer
Intermediate-term between one year and 10 years
EQUITY SECURITY
Equity Securities – such as common stock, which are
claims to share in the net income (income after
expenses and taxes) and the assets of the company.

Disadvantage of owning a corporation’s equities is that


equity holder is a residual claimant.

The advantage of holding equities is that equity holders


benefit directly from any increases in the corporation’s
profitability or asset value.
PRIMARY MARKET
Primary Market- a financial market in which new issues
of a security, such as a bond or a stock, are sold to
initial buyers by the corporation or government agency
borrowing the funds.

SECONDARY MARKET
Secondary Market- a financial market in which securities
that have been previously issued can be resold.
ORGANIZED EXCHANGES
Organized Exchanges- where a buyers and sellers of
securities meet in one central location to conduct
trade.

OVER-THE-COUNTER
Over-the-counter Market- dealers at different locations
who have an inventory of securities stand ready to buy
and sell securities “over-the-counter” to anyone who
comes to them and is willing to accept their prices.
MONEY MARKET
Money Market- a financial market in which only short-
term debt instruments (generally those with maturity
of less than a year) are traded.
-Money market securities are usually more widely traded
than longer-term securities and to be more liquid.

CAPITAL MARKET
Capital Market- a market where long-term debt (generally
with original maturity of one year or greater) and
equity instruments are traded.
INTERNATIONAL BOND MARKET, EUROBONDS,
AND EUROCURRENCIES
Foreign Bonds- traditional instruments in the international bond
market
- sold in a foreign country and are denominated in that
country’s currency
Eurobond- more recent innovation in the international bond market
- a bond denominated in a currency other than that of the
country in which it is sold
*Eurocurrencies-variant of Eurobond in which foreign currencies are
deposited in banks outside the home country
* Eurodollars- U.S. dollars deposited in foreign banks outside the
United States or in foreign branches of U.S. banks
WORLD STOCK MARKET
The internationalization of financial market is having
profound effects on the United States. Foreigners,
particularly Japanese investors, are not only providing
funds to corporations in the United States but also
helping finance the federal government.

The internationalization of financial markets is also


leading the way to a more integrated world economy in
which flows of goods and technology between
countries are more commonplace.
FUNCTION OF FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES:
INDIRECT FINANCE
Financial Intermediary- stands in between the lender-
savers and the borrower-spenders and helps transfer
funds from one to the other.
-financial intermediaries does this by borrowing
funds from the lender-savers and then using these
funds to make loans to borrower-spenders.

*Financial Intermediation – process of indirect finance


using financial intermediaries
TRANSACTION COSTS
Transaction costs- the time and money spent in carrying
out financial transaction

*Financial intermediary’s low transaction costs mean


that it can provide its customers with liquidity services
that make it easier for customers to conduct
transaction
RISK SHARING
Risk Sharing- creating and selling assets with risk
characteristics that people are comfortable with

*Risk- uncertainty about the returns investors will earn


on assets
*Asset Transformation- term that is the process of risk
sharing has been referred to
*Diversification- investing in a collection of assets whose
returns do not always move together, with the result
that overall risk is lower than for individual assets
ASYMMETRIC INFORMATION: ADVERSE
SELECTION AND MORAL HAZARD
Asymmetric Information- the inequality in financial
market where one party often does not know enough
about the other party to make accurate decisions.

Adverse Selection- problem created by asymmetric


information before the transaction occurs

Moral Hazard- problem created by asymmetric


information after the transaction occurs
ECONOMIES OF SCOPE AND CONFLICTS OF
INTEREST
Economies of Scope- lowering the cost of information
production for each service by applying one
information resource to many different services.

Conflicts of Interest- potential risk created by economies


of scope
- moral hazard problem that arise when a
person or institution has multiple objectives/interests
and has conflicts between those objectives
TYPES OF FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES
Type of Intermediary Primary Liabilities Primary Assets
(Source of Funds) (Uses of Funds)
Depository
Institutions(banks)
Commercial Banks Deposits Business and consumer
loans, mortgages, U.S.
government securities,
and municipal bonds

Savings and Loan Deposits Mortgages


Applications
Mutual Savings Banks Deposits Mortgages
Credit Unions Deposits Consumer loans
Type of Intermediary Primary Liabilities Primary Assets
(Sources of Funds) (Uses of Funds)
Contractual Savings
Institutions
Life Insurance Premiums from policies Corporate bonds and
Companies mortgages
Fire and Casualty Premiums from policies Municipal bonds, corporate
Insurance Companies bonds and stock, and U.S.
government securities

Pension funds, Employer and Corporate bonds and


government Employees contributions stock
retirement funds
Type of Intermediary Primary Liabilities Primary Assets
(Sources of Funds) (Uses of Funds)
Investment
Intermediaries
Finance Companies Commercial paper, Consumer and business
Stocks, Bonds loans
Mutual Funds Shares Stocks, bonds

Money Market mutual Shares Money market


funds instruments
MAIN REASONS WHY GOVERNMENT
REGULATES FINANCIAL MARKETS
Increase the information available to investor

The Stock and Exchange Commission (SEC)


requires corporations issuing securities to disclose
certain information about their sales, assets, and
earnings to the public and restricts trading by the
largest stockholders in the corporation.
ENSURING THE SOUNDNESS OF FINANCIAL
INTERMEDIARIES
Financial Panic- the widespread collapse of financial intermediaries

Government implemented types of regulations to protect the


public and economy from Financial Panics
I. Restrictions on Entry
II. Disclosure
III. Restrictions on Assets and Activities
IV. Deposit Insurance
V. Limits on Competition
VI. Restrictions on Interest Rates