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First surfaced in the african state of
Pernambuco, combining the strong rhythms of
African percussion instruments with
Portuguese melodies.
The maracatu groups were called nacoes
(nations) who paraded with a drumming
ensemble numbering up to 100, accompanied
by a singer, a chorus and a coterie of dancers.
Ganza or Miniero
BLUES - is musical form of the late 19th
century that had deep roots in African-
American communities.
These communities were located in the
so-called "Deep South" of theUnited
where the slaves and their descendants
used to sing as they worked in the
cotton and vegetable fields.


Soul- music was a popular music genre of the 1950s.
It originated in the United States and combimed
elements of African-American gospel music, rhythm
and blues, and often jazz.
The catchy rhythms are accompanied by handclaps
and extemporaneous body moves which are among its
important features.
Other charateristics include "call response" between
the soloist and the chorus, and an especially intense
and powerful vocal sound.
Soul- music continued to be popular into the 1970s. Examples of soul
hits from that era are: Ain't No Mountain High Enough,Ben, All I Could
Do Was Cry, Soul to Soul, and Betcha by Golly Wow.

SPIRITWAL- the term spiritual normally
associated with a deeply religious person, it
refers to a song form, known as the " Negro
Spiritual," sung by African slaves in America
who become enslaved by its white
communities. This musical form became their
outlet to express their loneliness and anger, and
was a result of the interaction of the music and
religion from Africa with that of america.
CALL RESPONSE- the call and respose method is is a
succession of two district musical phrases usually
rendered by different musicians, where the second
phrase acts as a direct commentary on or response
to the first.

Examples of Call and response songs are the

following; Mannish Boy, one of the signature songs
by Muddy Waters; School Day - Ring Ring Goes the
bell by Chuck berry; and Call Me Maybe by Carly
Rae Jepsen.
●Balafon - the balafon is a West African Xylophone. It is a pitched percussion instrument with bars
made from logs or bamboo.

●Rattles - Rattles are vessels made of seashells, thin basketry, animal hoofs, horn, wood, metal,
cocoons, palm kernels, or tortoise shells. These may range from single to several objects that are
either joined or suspended to create sound as they hit each other.
●Agogo - is a single bell or multiple
bells that had its origins in
traditional Yoruba music as
well as in the samba bateria
(percussion) ensembles.

●Atingting Kon - are slit gongs use as

communication between villages.
Traditionally, they were carved out
of wood to resemble ancestors
and had a slit opening at the bottom.
In a certain cases, their sound could
carry for miles to the forest and
across water to neighboring islands.
●Slit drum - is a hollow
percussion instrument.
Although reffered to as a
drum, it is more of an idiophone.

●Djembe - is one of the best known

African drums. It is shaped liked
a large goblet and played with bared
hands. The body is carved from a
hollowed trunk and is covered
with goat skin.

●Shekere - is a type of ground

and shell megaphone from
West Africa, consisting of a dried
gourd with beads woven into
a net covering the gourd.
●Rasp - or scraper, is a hand percussion instrument whose
sound is produced by scraping the notches on a piece of
wood (sometimes elaborately carved) with a stick,
creating a series of rattling effects.
●Body Percussion - African people frequently use their bodies as musical instruments.
Asude from using their voices since many of them are sulerb singers they also clap
their hands slap their thighds, pound their upper arms or chest, or shuffle and stomp
their feet.
●Talking drum - is used to send messages to announce births, deaths,
marriages, sporting events dances, initiation, or war. Sometimes, the
message may even contain gossip or jokes. An example of the talking
drum is the luna.
●One of the most tpopular African percussion imstruments is the lamellaphone, which is a set of
plucked tongues or keys mounted on a sound board. It is know. by different names according to the
regions such as mbira , karimba, kisaanji, and likembe.

The mbira (thumb piano or finger xylophone) is from Zimbabwe that is used
throughout the continent.
The earth bow - also called ground bow or pit harp
- consits of a flexible pole which is planted in
the gground. A string is attached to a stone, a piece of bark, or a small
piece of wood.This type of bow is often used in ceremonies involving
Kora - is Africa's most sophisticated harp,while also having features
similar to a lute. It is body is made from a gourd or calabash.
- A support for the bridge is set across the opening and covered
with a skin that is held in place with studs.
- The leather rings afound the neck are used to tighten the 21
strings that give the instrument a range of over three octaves.
-The kora is held upright and played with the fingers.
Zither - is a stringed instrument with varying sizes and shapes
whose strings are stretched along its body

- Among the types of African

zither are the raft or Inanga
zither from Burundi, the
tubular or Valiha zither from
Malagasi, and the harp or
Mvet zither from Cameroon
Zeze - is a fiddle from Sub- Saharan Africa played with a bow, a
small wooden stick, or plucked with the fingers.
It has 1 or 2 strings, made of steel or bicycle brake wire. It is also
known by the names tzetze or dzendze, izeze and endingidi; and
Made in Madagascar it is called Lokanga voatavo.


●Flutes - are widely used throuhout Africa. They are usually

fashioned from a singme tube closed at one and blown , while
being held either vertically or side-blown.
●Atenteben - is a bamboo flute from Ghana
it is played vertically like the European recorder
●Fulani flutes - is the traditional flute of the fulani
people. It is also known as fula or tambin.
●Panpipes - consist of cane
pipes of diffirent lenghts
tied in a row or in a
bundle held together
by wax or a cord, and
generally closed at the
bottom. They are blown
across the top, each
producing a different note.
■HORNS and trumpets are found almost every where in Africa,
and are commonly made from elephant tusks and animal
horns. With their varied attractive shapes, this instruments
may be either end blown. They vary in range and size from the
small signal whistle of the southern cattle herderes to the large
ivory horns of the tribal chiefs of the interior.The wooden
trumpets maybe simple or artistically carved, sometimes
resembling a crocodile's head.
KUDO HORN - this is one type of horn made from the horn of
the kudu antelope. it releases a mellow and warm sound that
adds a unique african accent to the music.
●Whistle - are found throughout the continent and may be made of
wood or other materials. Short pieces of horn serve as whistles,
often with a short tube inserted into the mouth piece.
●Trumpets - are made of wood, metal, animal horns, elephant
tusks, and gourds, ornamented with snake or crocodile skin or the
hide of zebras, leopards, and other animals.