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 Introduction
 What is Biodiesel?
 Production process of biodiesel
 Benefits of Biodiesel
 Environmental Issues
 Problems brought by Biodiesel
 Biodiesel Samples
 The Future of Biodiesel
 Conclusion
 Biodiesel can be operated in any diesel engine with little
or no impact to the fuel system.
 Biodiesel has a solvent effect which may release deposits
accumulated on tank walls and pipes from previous diesel
fuel storage.
 The release of deposits may clog filters.
 Biodiesel can be used as a pure fuel or blended with
petroleum in any ratio.
What is Biodiesel?
 Alternative fuel for diesel engines
 Made from vegetable oil or animal fat
 Meets health effect testing (CAA)
 Lower emissions, High flash point (>300F), Safer
 Biodegradable, Essentially non-toxic.
 Chemically, biodiesel molecules are mono-alkyl esters
produced usually from triglyceride esters
Fatty Acid
FA Alcohol

FA Biodiesel

Vegetable Oil
Biodiesel can be used in
existing Diesel Engines
 Pure Biodiesel (B100) or blended with petroleum
diesel (B20, BXX).
 Rudolf Diesel: peanut oil.
 Little or no engine modifications
 Use existing fuel distribution network.
 Available now
Biodiesel Production

As mentioned above biodiesel can be produced from straight vegetable oil,

oil/fats, tallow and waste oils. There are three basic routes to biodiesel production
from oils and fats:
Base catalyzed transesterification of the oil.
Direct acid catalyzed transesterification of the oil.
Conversion of the oil to its fatty acids and then to biodiesel.
Almost all biodiesel is produced using base catalyzed transesterification as it is
most economical process requiring only low temperatures and pressures and
producing a 98% conversion yield. For this reason only this process will be
described in this report.
Flow Chart
Benefits of Biodiesel
 - High cetane number (average 45,8-56,9 units)
 - High flash point (above +100)
 - Good lubricating property
 - Absence of sulfur and aromatic hydrocarbons
 - Low toxicity of emissions
 - Virtually complete biodegradability (99%
 biodiesel are destroyed in water or soil for 28 days)
 - Zero balance of greenhouse gases

Environmental Issues
 Burning fossil fuels increases atmospheric levels of
carbon dioxide
 Fossil fuels are a finite resource

30% Increase

Graph taken from USF Oceanography webpage

Problems brought by Biodiesel
• Certain biodiesel gels easily under cold
• Deforestation for plantation
• Degrades rubber in old cars
• Synthetic rubbers that are resistant
Biodiesel Samples
The Future of Biodiesel
 Should be considered for use as an alternative and not a primary fuel

 Short and long term environmental benefits will be worthwhile

 Storage Issues with Stability and Transportation issues with high cost
of delivered fuel compared to fossil fuels

 Fuel-supply reliability

 Lack of understanding of environmental impact - NOx emissions

 Complexity of biomass-power infrastructure compared to known well

established coal and natural gas markets
 Biodiesel is eco-friendly.
 Biodiesel is clean burning alternative fuel.
 Biodiesel contain no petroleum, but can be blended
with conventional diesel fuel.
 These fuel can be used in any diesel engine without
any modification.
 Biodiesel is degradable , non toxic and free from
sulphur and lead.