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TYPES OF FILTERING

ONLY ALLOWS LOW FREQUENCY SIGNALS FROM


LOW PASS FILTER
0HZ TO ITS CUT-OFF FREQUENCY, ƑC POINT TO
PASS WHILE BLOCKING THOSE ANY HIGHER.

PASSIVE LOW PASS FILTER ACTIVE LOW PASS FILTER


PASSIVE LOW PASS FILTER

• In
Is alow frequency
circuit applications
that can be designed(uptoto 100kHz),
modify, passive
reshape or filters
reject
are generally high
all unwanted constructed
frequenciesusing
of ansimple RC signal
electrical (Resistor-
and
Capacitor) networks,
accept or pass only while
those higher
signals frequency
wanted byfilters (above
the circuits
100kHz)
designer. are usually made from RLC(Resistor-Inductor-
Capacitor) components.
• In other words they “filter-out” unwanted signals and an
• Passive filters are made up of passive components such as
ideal filter will separate and pass sinusoidal input signals
resistors, capacitors and inductors and have no amplifying
based upon their frequency.
elements (transistors, op-amps, etc) so have no signal gain,
therefore their output level is always less than the input.
ACTIVE LOW PASS FILTER
• The
By combining
As most
their common
namea basic
implies,
and easily
RC Active
Low
understood
PassFilters
Filter
active
circuit
contain
filterwith
active
an
• components
operational
Its principle amplifier
ofsuch as we
operational
operation can
andcreate amplifiers,
an Active
frequency Low
transistors
response Pass Filter
or
is exactly
FET’s
circuit
the samewithin
complete
astheir
thosewith
circuit
foramplification.
design.
the previously seen passive filter, the
• only
With difference
They draw
passive
their
filter
this
power
circuits
time
from is
containing
an
that
external
it uses
multiple
power
an op-amp
stages,
source and
this
for
loss itintosignal
use
amplification
boostand
or
amplitude
amplify
gain control.
the
called
output
“Attenuation”
signal. can become
quite severe. One way of restoring or controlling this loss of
signal is by using amplification through the use of Active
Filters.
ONLY ALLOWS HIGH FREQUENCY SIGNALS FROM ITS CUT-
HIGH PASS FILTER
OFF FREQUENCY, ƑC POINT AND HIGHER TO INFINITY TO
PASS THROUGH WHILE BLOCKING THOSE ANY LOWER.

PASSIVE HIGH PASS FILTER ACTIVE HIGH PASS FILTER


PASSIVE HIGH PASS FILTER

• Is the exact opposite to the low pass filter circuit as the two
components have been interchanged with the filters output
signal now being taken from across the resistor.
• As its name implies, only passes signals above the selected
cut-off point, ƒc eliminating any low frequency signals from
the waveform. .
ACTIVE HIGH PASS FILTER

• An Active
As its nameHigh Pass attenuates
implies, Filter can be
lowcreated by combining
frequencies a
and passes
passive RC filtersignals.
high frequency network with an operational amplifier to
• produce a high
It consists simplypassoffilter with amplification.
a passive filter section followed by a
• non-inverting
The basic operation of an amplifier.
operational Active High Pass Filter (HPF) is
• the
The same as for
frequency its equivalent
response RC passive
of the circuit high pass
is the same filter
as that of
circuit, except
the passive filter,this timethat
except thethecircuit has an
amplitude operational
of the signal is
amplifier
increased byortheincluded
gain of thewithin
amplifier.its design providing
amplification and gain control.
ALLOWS SIGNALS FALLING WITHIN A CERTAIN FREQUENCY BAND

BAND PASS FILTER


SETUP BETWEEN TWO POINTS TO PASS THROUGH WHILE BLOCKING
BOTH THE LOWER AND HIGHER FREQUENCIES EITHER SIDE OF THIS
FREQUENCY BAND.

PASSIVE BAND PASS FILTER ACTIVE BAND PASS FILTER


PASSIVE BAND PASS FILTER

• ItPassive
passesBand
signals
Passwithin
Filtersacan
certain
be “band”
made or by “spread”
connecting
of
together a lowwithout
frequencies pass filterdistorting
with a highthe
pass filter.
input signal or
• introducing extra can
Band Pass Filters noise.
be used to isolate or filter out certain
• This
frequencies
band of that
frequencies
lie within
canabeparticular
any widthband
and isorcommonly
range of
frequencies.
known as the filters Bandwidth.
• Sometimes it is necessary to only pass a certain range of
frequencies that do not begin at 0Hz, (DC) or end at some
upper high frequency point but are within a certain range or
ACTIVE BAND PASS FILTER

• It is slightly different in that it is a frequency selective filter


circuit used in electronic systems to separate a signal at one
particular frequency, or a range of signals that lie within a
certain “band” of frequencies from signals at all other
frequencies.
• This band or range of frequencies is set between two cut-
off or corner frequency points labelled the “lower
frequency” ( ƒL ) and the “higher frequency” ( ƒH ) while
• Filters
As the are
function
so named
KEY NOTES
of any according
filter is to allow
to thesignals
frequency
of a range
given band
of signals
of frequencies
that they
allow
to pass
to pass
unaltered
throughwhile
them,attenuating
while blocking
or weakening
or “attenuating”
all others
the rest.
that are not
• wanted, we can define
Simple First-order thefilters
passive amplitude response
(1st order) cancharacteristics
be made byofconnecting
an ideal
filter by using
together an ideal
a single frequency
resistor and a response curve of in
single capacitor theseries
four basic
acrossfilter
an types
input
as shown.
signal, ( V ) with the output of the filter, ( V ) taken from the junction of
IN OUT
• these
Activetwo
filters
components.
contain amplifying devices to increase signal strength while
• passive
Dependingdo not
on contain amplifying
which way arounddevices to strengthen
we connect the signal.
the resistor and the capacitor
• with
As there
regards
are two
to the
passive
output
components
signal determines
within a passive
the typefilter
of design
filter construction
the output
resulting
signal hasin aeither
smaller
a Low
amplitude
Pass Filter
thanoritsa corresponding
High Pass Filter.
input signal, therefore
passive RC filters attenuate the signal and have a gain of less than one,
(unity).
FORMULAS
LOW PASS FILTER
PASS
OUTPUT
BANDVOLTAGE
GAIN (AF) MAGNITUDE OF VOLTAGE
CAPACITIVE GAIN IN (DB)
REACTANCE IMPEDANCE
VOLTAGE GAIN

RC POTENTIAL DIVIDER EQUATION CUT-OFF FREQUENCY AND PHASE SHIFT


FORMULAS
HIGH PASS FILTER
CUT-OFF FREQUENCY AND PHASE SHIFT CIRCUIT GAIN
FORMULAS
BAND PASS FILTER
MAGNITUDE
CUT-OFFOF VOLTAGE GAIN IN (DB) CAPACITOR
FREQUENCY CUT-OFFATFREQUENCY
HIGH AND LOW
AND PASS
PHASEFILTER
SHIFTSTAGE

CENTRE FREQUENCY EQUATION VOLTAGE GAIN


SHORT SUMMARY
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