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Indicators used to evaluate

reproductive health

Statistical Indicators

Dr. Moustafa ElHousinie


How to measure occurrence of events
 Counts…can not be compared
 Number of male students =40
 Proportion a/(a+b)
 Proportion of male student = (40/(40+160)) /
100 = 20%
 Ratio a/b
 The male female ratio is 1:4
 Rate = change per unit time
 Count, Proportion or Ratio
Incidence / Mortality

 Incidence rate = proportion of new cases


among disease free group per unit time
 Incidence rate of peurperal sepsis = 2 per
thousand per year ----every year 2 cases of
puerperal sepsis develop from every 1000
delivery
 Mortality rate is an incidence rate where
death is the disease!
Prevalence

 Prevalence rate = proportion of ALL cases


(old and new) among the examined group
per unit time
 Prevalence rate of diabetes is 20% per year --
-- every year there is 20 diabetic cases in
every 100 individuals from both sexes and all
ages
I. Service provision and utilization
indicators
 Antenatal care rate
# of pregnancies utilizing antenatal care
services/ # of all pregnancies
 Tetanus toxoid vaccination rate
 Deliveries attended by health care
professional rate
 Postnatal care rate
II. Mortality

 Maternal mortality ratio


# of deaths during and due to causes
related to pregnancy, delivery and
peurperium/ # of livebirths
 Major causes:
 Hemorrhage
 Toxemia of pregnancy
 Puerperal sepsis
 Labor problems
III. Morbidity
 Incidence and prevalence rates of acute and
chronic maternal morbidities.
 Hypertension
 Diabetes
 Toxemia
 Perineal tears
 Puerperal sepsis
 hemorrhoids
 Uterine and vaginal prolapse
 Fistulea: urethro-vaginal and rectovaginal
IV. Fertility Rates
 Crude birth rate :
number of live births reported during a given year and locality x 1000
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
mid-year population in the same year and locality

 General fertility rate :


number of live births reported during a given year and locality x 1000
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
estimated number of women in child bearing period (15-49 years)
in the same year and locality
 Fecundity rate :
number of live births reported during a given year and locality x 1000
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
estimated number of married women in child bearing period (15-49
years) in the same year and locality

 Age specific fertility rate: It relates live births born


to women of a certain age group to women of the same age
group. Example: Age specific fertility rate for women aged 25-<30
years:

No. of live births born to women aged 25-<30 during given year and
locality x 1000
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total number of women aged 25-<30 in the same year and locality
 Total fertility rate is the summation of age specific fertility
rates. It represents the total number of births born to a woman
throughout her child bearing period provided that the age specific
fertility rates remain constant. In Egypt in 1999 it was 3.9 live
births per woman.
 2.1 is the critical value. If less then the population is vanishing
and if more the population is increasing
 Gross reproduction rate:
 The gross reproduction rate estimates the number of female live
births given by a female during her child bearing period assuming
that none of the women died during the child bearing period. It is
calculated by multiplying the total fertility rate with the percent of
females among the live births.

 Net reproduction rate:


 It represents the total number of females replacing each woman
passing through child bearing period (taking in consideration the
mortality rate of women at each age group). The ultimate goal of
the family planning program is to reduce the net reproduction
rate to one. In Egypt in 1999 the net reproduction rate was 2.9
per woman, i.e. each woman replaces herself by approximately 3
baby girls during her child bearing period taking in consideration
the mortality rates of women during this period.
Overpopulation problem
 Causes
 High infant mortality rate
 Social apathy
 Children are economic units
 Social values, education and working women
 A problem of population
 Number
 Quality and
 Distribution