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SCHOOL BASED HEALTH

PROBEM EPIDEMIOLOGY
(AUTISM)

Susi Buryanti 6411416120


Ardianti Lestari 6411416123
DEFINITION OF AUTISM

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex


developmental disability; signs typically appear during
early childhood and affect a person’s ability to
communicate, and interact with others. ASD is defined by
a certain set of behaviors and is a “spectrum condition”
that affects individuals differently and to varying degrees.
There is no known single cause of autism, but increased
awareness and early diagnosis/intervention and access
to appropriate services/supports lead to significantly
improved outcomes.
EPIDEMIOLOGY
In 2018, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
issued their ADDM autism prevalence report. The report
concluded that the prevalence of autism had risen to 1 in
every 59 births in the United States – twice as great as the 2004
rate of 1 in 125 – and almost 1 in 54 boys.
CDC increases estimate of autism’s prevalence by 15
percent, to 1 in 59 children.
EARLY IDENTIFICATION

 Lack of or delay in spoken language


 Repetitive use of language and/or motor mannerisms
(e.g., hand-flapping, twirling objects)
 Little or no eye contact
 Lack of interest in peer relationships
 Lack of spontaneous or make-believe play
 Persistent fixation on parts of objects
THE CAUSES OF AUTISM
There is no known single cause for autism spectrum disorder,
but it is generally accepted that it is caused by abnormalities in
brain structure or function. Brain scans show differences in the
shape and structure of the brain in children with autism
compared to in neurotypical children.
Many researchers are investigating the possibility that under
certain conditions, a cluster of unstable genes may interfere
with brain development, resulting in autism. Still other
researchers are investigating problems during pregnancy or
delivery as well as environmental factors such as viral infections,
metabolic imbalances and exposure to chemicals.
THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF AUTISM

People with ASD often have problems with


social, emotional, and communication skills. They
might repeat certain behaviors and might not want
change in their daily activities. Many people with ASD
also have different ways of learning, paying attention,
or reacting to things. Signs of ASD begin during early
childhood and typically last throughout a person’s life.
THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF AUTISM
Children or adults with ASD might:
 Not point at objects to show interest (for example, not point at an airplane flying
over)
 Not look at objects when another person points at them
 Have trouble relating to others or not have an interest in other people at all
 Avoid eye contact and want to be alone
 Have trouble understanding other people’s feelings or talking about their own
feelings
 Prefer not to be held or cuddled, or might cuddle only when they want to
 Appear to be unaware when people talk to them, but respond to other sounds
 Be very interested in people, but not know how to talk, play, or relate to them
 Repeat or echo words or phrases said to them, or repeat words or phrases in
place of normal language
THE DIAGNOSIS OF AUTISM

At first glance, some people with autism may


appear to have an intellectual disability, sensory
processing issues, or problems with hearing or vision. To
complicate matters further, these conditions can co-
occur with autism. However, it is important to
distinguish autism from other conditions, as an
accurate and early autism diagnosis can provide the
basis for an appropriate educational and treatment
program.
THE TREATMENT OF AUTISM
There are no medications that can cure ASD or treat the
core symptoms. However, there are medications that can help
some people with ASD function better. For example,
medication might help manage high energy levels, inability to
focus, depression, or seizures.
Medications might not affect all children in the same way. It
is important to work with a health care professional who has
experience in treating children with ASD. Parents and health
care professionals must closely monitor a child’s progress and
reactions while he or she is taking a medication to be sure that
any negative side effects of the treatment do not outweigh the
benefits.
TYPES OF TREATMENT

There are many different types of treatments available. For


example, auditory training, discrete trial training, vitamin therapy,
anti-yeast therapy, facilitated communication, music therapy,
occupational therapy, physical therapy, and sensory integration.

 Dietary Approaches
Many biomedical interventions call for changes in diet. Such
changes include removing certain types of foods from a child’s diet
and using vitamin or mineral supplements. Dietary treatments are
based on the idea that food allergies or lack of vitamins and minerals
cause symptoms of ASD. Some parents feel that dietary changes
make a difference in how their child acts or feels.
THE PREVENTION OF AUTISM
In rare cases, doctors also say, a baby can be born with
birth defects if the mother was exposed to certain chemicals
while she was pregnant. But doctors can’t find out, during your
pregnancy, if your baby will have autism.
While you can’t prevent having a child with an autistic
disorder, you can increase your odds of having a healthy baby
by doing these lifestyle changes.
Healthy life, have regular check-ups, eat well-balanced
meals, and exercise. Make sure you have good prenatal care,
and take all recommended vitamins and supplements.