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TISSUES

Prepared by: Arthur Christian B. Mangio, PTRP


• A tissue is a group of cells that usually have a common origin
in an embryo and function together to carry out specialized
activities.
• Histology – study of tissues
• Pathologist - is a physician who examines cells and tissues to
help other physicians make accurate diagnoses. One of the
principal functions of a pathologist is to examine tissues for
any changes that might indicate disease.
• Body tissues can be classified into four basic types according
to their function and their structure
• Epithelial Tissues
• Connective Tissues
• Muscular Tissues
• Nervous Tissues
Difference between epithelial
and connective tissues
• The first obvious difference is the number of cells in relation to the
extracellular matrix (the substance between cells).
• In an epithelial tissue many cells are tightly packed together with little
or no extracellular matrix, whereas in a connective tissue a large
amount of extracellular material separates cells that are usually widely
scattered.
• The second obvious difference is that an epithelial tissue has no blood
vessels, whereas most connective tissues have significant networks of
blood vessels
• Another key difference is that epithelial tissue almost always forms
surface layers and is not covered by another tissue.
• An exception is the epithelial lining of blood vessels where blood
constantly passes over the epithelium
Epithelial Tissues
• Exists in many structural forms, but in general it covers or lines
something
• consists of cells arranged in continuous sheets, in either single
or multiple layers
• Arranged in 2 patterns
• covering and lining various surfaces
• forming the secreting portions of glands
• Functions:
• Absorption (lining in the small intestine)
• Secretion(by glands)
• Transport(kidney tubules)
• Excretion(by sweat and in the urinary tract)
• Protection
• Sensory reception
General Characteristics Of
Epithelial Tissues
Basement Membrane
• Most epithelial tissues are attached to the underlying connective
tissue by a basement membrane
• Consists of 2 layers:
• Basal lamina : is closer to—and secreted by— the epithelial cells
• Homogenous layer of peptide and glycoproteins lacking fibers
• Contains laminin and collagen, glycoproteins and proteoglycans
• Reticular lamina: is closer to the underlying connective tissue and
contains proteins such as collagen produced by connective tissue cells
called fibroblasts
• A deep layer of glycoproteins containing reticular and collagenous fiber
• Functions:
• Assured epithelium is held in position that reduces possibility of tearing
• Attach and anchor the epithelium to it’s underlying connective tissue
• Provides elastic support and act as a partial barrier for diffusion and
filtration
• They form a surface along which epithelial cells migrate during growth or
wound healing
Avascular
• Lacks blood vessel
• Exchange of substance between the epithelial and connective
tissue happen through diffusion
• Epithelial tissue may not have blood vessel but it may contain
blood vessel
Surface Specialization
• Some epithelial have smooth surfaces such as those lining the
ventral body cavities and blood vessel
• Most epithelials have irregular surface that result from
complex folding of their outer plasma membrane
• Microvilli
• Cillia
Regeneration
• Because epithelial tissue forms boundaries between the
body’s organs, or between the body and the external
environment, it is repeatedly subjected to physical stress and
injury.
• Damaged epithelial tissues are shed and replaced by new cells
by constant regeneration through cell division
• A high rate of cell division allows epithelial tissue to constantly
renew and repair itself by sloughing off dead or injured cells
and replacing them with new ones.
• Epithelial tissues may be divided into two:
• Covering or lining epithelium or surface epithelium : forms
the outer covering of the skin and some internal organs. It also
forms the inner lining of blood vessels, ducts, body cavities,
and the interior of the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and
reproductive systems.
• Glandular epithelium :makes up the secreting portion of
glands such as the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, sweat glands,
and digestive glands
Classification of Epithelial
Tissue
• Types of covering and lining epithelial tissue are classified
according to two characteristics:
• the arrangement of cells into layers
• the shapes of the cells
1. Simple Squamous
• Single layer of flat cells
• is a single layer of flat cells that resembles a tiled floor when
viewed from apical surface; centrally located nucleus that is
flattened and oval or spherical in shape.
• Most commonly lines the cardiovascular and lymphatic system
(heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels), where it is known as
endothelium
• forms the epithelial layer of serous membranes (peritoneum,
pleura, pericardium), where it is called mesothelium
• Also found in air sacs of lungs, glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule
of kidneys, inner surface of tympanic membrane (eardrum).
• The major function of this kind of epithelium is to permit
diffusion through selectively permeable membrane
• Present at sites of filtration (such as blood filtration in kidneys)
or diffusion (such as diffusion of oxygen into blood vessels of
lungs) and at site of secretion in serous membranes. Not
found in body areas subject to mechanical stress (wear and
tear)
2. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
• Single layer of cubed shaped cells, round centrally located
nucleus
• Forms the lining of many glands and their ducts
• Covers surface of ovary; lines anterior surface of capsule of
lens of the eye; forms pigmented epithelium at posterior
surface of retina of the eye;
• lines kidney ( with microvilli on cell surface) tubules and
smaller ducts of many glands; makes up secreting portion of
some glands such as thyroid gland and ducts of some glands
such as pancreas
• Functions:
• Secretion of mucus, sweat, enzymes and other substances
• Absorption of fluids and other substances
(Note: Strictly cuboidal cells could not form small tubes; these cuboidal cells are
more pie-shaped but still nearly as high as they are wide at the base.)
3. Simple Columnar Epithelium
• Single layer of cells that are more tall than wide
• Found in stomach , intestines (with microvilli), digestive glands
and gall bladder
• For secretion absorption, protection and lubrication
• Mucus and cillia combines to trap away foreign substances
• Cillia may also help move objects through a duct such as an
egg in the uterine tube
• Cilliated Simple Columnar Epithelium
• is a single layer of ciliated columnl ike cells with oval nuclei near
base of cells
• Lines some bronchioles (small tubes) of respiratory tract, uterine
(fallopian) tubes, uterus, some paranasal sinuses, central canal of
spinal cord, and ventricles of brain
• Non Cilliated Simple Columnar Epithelium
• is a single layer of nonciliated columnlike cells with oval nuclei
near base of cells
• Lines gastrointestinal tract (from stomach to anus), ducts of many
glands, and gallbladder.
3. Stratified Squamous
Epithelium
• It consists of several layer of cells
• Only the superficial layer is composed of flat squamous cells
• Found in areas where friction or possibility of cellullar injury or dying
occurs
• Epidermis, vagina, mouth and esophagus, anal canal, distal end of
urethra
• As basal cells divide, daughter cells arising from cell divisions push
upward toward apical layer. As they move toward surface and away
from blood supply in underlying connective tissue, they become
dehydrated and less metabolically active.
• Tough proteins predominate as cytoplasm is reduced, and cells
become tough, hard structures that eventually die. At apical layer,
after dead cells lose cell junctions they are sloughed off, but they are
replaced continuously as new cells emerge from basal cells.
• Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium –
• In the skin, replacement cells rising to the surface from
underlying layer produce a tough protein called keratin
• Non keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
• does not contain large amounts of keratin in apical layer and
several layers deep and is constantly moistened by mucus from
salivary and mucous glands; organelles are not replaced.
• Cells in a moist environment are nonkeratinized and they retain
their nuclei and organelles
>> Keratinized variety forms superficial layer of skin
>>nonkeratinized variety lines wet surfaces (lining of mouth,
esophagus, part of epiglottis, part of pharynx, and vagina) and
covers tongue.
4. Stratified Cuboidal
• Has two or more layers of cells; cells in apical layer are cube-
shaped; fairly rare type.
• Multilayer arrangement with superficial layer composed of
cuboidal cells
• Ducts of adult sweat glands(sudoriferous) and esophageal
glands, part of male urethra, oil glands(sebaceous) and in
developing epithelium in ovaries and epithelium
• Protection; secretion and absorption.
5. Stratified Columnar
Epithelium
• Multilayered arrangement with superficial layer of tall thin
columnar cells
• Lines part of urethra; large excretory ducts of some glands,
such as esophageal glands; small areas in anal mucous
membrane; part of conjunctiva of eye.
• Mainly found in moist areas: larynx, nasal surface of soft
palate, parts of larynx, urethra
• Protection, secretion and movement of materials over cell
6. Pseudostratified Columnar
Epithelium
• Has a single layer of cells varying in height and shape
• The nuclei at different levels gives a false impression of
multilayered structure
• Found in large excretory cells, most of male reproductive tract,
nasal cavity, other respiratory passages and part of ear cavity
• Protection, secretion and movement of foreign substances
across surfaces
• Non cilliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium
• Lines epididymis, larger ducts of many glands, and parts of male
urethra.
• Cilliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium
• Lines airways of most of upper respiratory tract.
• Secretes mucus that traps foreign particles, and cilia sweep away
mucus for elimination from body.
7. Transitional Epithelium
• Has a variable appearance (transitional).
• In relaxed or unstretched state, looks like stratified cuboidal
epithelium.
• As tissue is stretched, cells become flatter, giving the
appearance of stratified squamous epithelium.
• Multiple layers and elasticity make it ideal for lining hollow
structures (urinary bladder) subject to expansion from within.
• Found in urinary tracts and kidney
• Allows urinary organs to stretch and maintain protective lining
while holding variable amounts of fluid without rupturing,
allows changes in shape
8. Glandular Epithelium
• Modified to perform secretion
• Two main types
• Endocrine / inside : enter the interstitial fluid and then diff use into the
bloodstream without flowing through a duct.
• Examples include pituitary gland at base of brain, pineal gland in brain, thyroid
and parathyroid glands near larynx (voice box), adrenal glands superior to kidneys,
pancreas near stomach, ovaries in pelvic cavity, testes in scrotum, thymus in
thoracic cavity
• Hormones regulate many metabolic and physiological activities to maintain
homeostasis.
• Exocrine/ outside: secrete their products into ducts that empty onto the
surface of a covering and lining epithelium such as the skin surface or the
lumen of a hollow organ.
• The secretions of exocrine glands have limited effects and some of them would
be harmful if they entered the bloodstream
• They contains ducts that carry their secretions to openings of the body
• Sweat, oil, and earwax glands of skin; digestive glands such as salivary glands
(secrete into mouth cavity) and pancreas (secretes into small intestine).
• Produce substances such as sweat to help lower body temperature, oil, earwax,
saliva, or digestive enzymes.
• Exocrine glands is classified into several ways
• Unicellular –
• the only example of a unicellular gland is the goblet cell
• Goblet cells produces carbohydrate rich glycoprotein called mucin
and secreted as mucus
• found in the lining of the intestines, other parts of the digestive
system, respiratory tract, conjunctiva of the eye
• Multicellular
• Contains many cells
• Simple
• Gland with one unbranched duct
• Compound
• A branched duct system that resembles a tree
• Tubular
• If the secretory potion of the gland is tubular
• Alveolar / Acinar
• rounded
• Tubuloalveolar
• Both tubular and round
• Mucous
• Secrete thick mucous
• Serous
• Secretes thin watery substance
• Mixed
• Secretes mucus and serous secretions
• Merocrine
• Releases their secretions without breaking the plasma membrane
using exocytosis
• Holocrine
• Whole cells become detached, die and actually become the
secretions
• Sebaceous gland
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
• Connect other tissues together
• One of the most abundant and widely distributed tissues in
the body
• In its various forms, connective tissue has a variety of
functions.
• It binds together, supports, and strengthens other body tissues;
protects and insulates internal organs; compartmentalizes
structures such as skeletal muscles
• serves as the major transport system within the body (blood, a
fluid connective tissue); is the primary location of stored energy
reserves (adipose, or fat, tissue); and is the main source of
immune responses
• When cartilage and bone are included in the over all
classification of connective tissues, the whole group is often
referred as Supporting Tissues
• Generalized Types
• Loose
• Dense
• Elastic
• Specialized forms
• Cartilage
• Bone(osseous)
• Blood
• They consist fiber, ground substance, cells and some
extracellular fluid
• Matrix – the extracellular fibers and ground substance
Fibers Of Connective Tissue
• Collagenous
• Whitish fibers, are very strong and resist pulling or stretching, but
they are not stiff , which allows tissue flexibility.
• Chemically, collagen fibers consist of the protein collagen, which
is the most abundant protein in your body, representing about
25% of the total
• Collagen fibers are found in most types of connective t issues,
especially bone, cartilage, tendons
• These fibers varies from loose and pliable (organs) to tightly
packed and stretch resistant(tendons)
• Reticular
• Consisting of collagen arranged in fine bundles with a coating of
glycoprotein, provide support in the walls of blood vessels and
form a network around the cells in some tissues such as areolar
connective tissue adipose tissue, nerve fibers, and smooth
muscle tissue
• Produced by fibroblasts, reticular fibers are much thinner than
collagen fibers and form branching networks
• Reticular fibers provide support and strength. Reticular fibers are
plentiful in reticular connective tissue
• It forms the stroma (supporting framework) of many soft organs,
such as the spleen and lymph nodes.
• These fibers also help form the basement membrane.
• Elastic
• Yellowish, appear singly, never in bundles but they branch and
form networks
• An elastic fiber consists of molecules of the protein elastin
surrounded by a glycoprotein named fibrillin which adds strength
and stability because of their unique molecular structure
• Elastic fibers are strong but can be stretched up to 150% of their
relaxed length without breaking.
• Equally important, elastic fibers have the ability to return to their
original shape aft er being stretched, a property called elasticity.
Elastic fibers are plentiful in skin, blood vessel walls, and lung
tissue
Ground Substance of
Connective Tissues
• A homogenous extracellular material that ranges in
consistency from semifluid and thick gel or calcified
• The component of a connective tissue between the cells and
fibers.
• It supports cells, binds them together, stores water, and
provides a medium for exchange of substances between the
blood and cells.
• It plays an active role in how tissues develop, migrate,
proliferate, and change shape, and in how they carry out their
metabolic functions
• The main ingredient us glycoproteins, proteoglycans,
hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate and other sulfate
• They also act as a lubricant and shock absorber
Cells of Connective Tissues
• Can be classified into two
• Fixed cells
• Fibroblasts – large, flat cells with branching processes, the most
common and usually the most numerous; the only cells found in
tendon, synthesizes and secretes the matrix, considered
secretory cells and assists wound healing
• Adipose(fat cells) / Adipocytes - connective tissue cells that store
triglycerides (fats). They are found deep to the skin and around
organs such as the heart and kidneys
• Reticular cells – play a role in the immune response
• Macrophage – active phagocytes
• reside in a particular tissue; examples i nclude alveolar macrophages
in the lungs or splenic macrophages in the spleen.
• Wandering Cells – involved with long term activities such as
protection and repair
• Leukocytes - are not found in significant numbers in normal
connective tissue. However, in response to certain conditions
they migrate from blood into connective tissue, they are
phagocytes that engulfs harmful microorganism
• Plasma cells -
• A specific type of phagocyte and the main producer of the antibodies
for microbial infection and cancer
• found in many places in the body, but most plasma cells reside in
connective tissue, especially in the gastrointestinal and respiratory
tracts
• Mast cells – large cells involved in fighting long term infections
and inflammation
• Free Macrophages – part of the reticuloendothelial system
• Produces antibodies and removes dead cells, tissue debris etc
Types of Connective Tissue
1. Bone or Osseous Tissue –
• Bone tissue is classified into two : the compact bone and the
spongy bone
• The basic unit of a compact bone is an osteon or the harvesian
system and each osteon has four parts
• The lamellae : are concentric rings of extracellular matrix that
consist of mineral salts (mostly calcium and phosphates), which
give bone its hardness and compressive strength, and collagen
fibers, which give bone its tensile strength.
• The lamellae are responsible for the compact nature of this type of
bone tissue.
• Lacunae: are small spaces between lamellae that contain mature
bone cells called osteocytes.
• Projecting from the lacunae are canaliculi (little canals),
networks of minute canals containing the processes of
osteocytes.
• Canaliculi provide routes for nutrients to reach osteocytes and for
wastes to leave them.
• Central canal or haversian canal contains blood vessels and
nerves

• Spongy bone lacks osteons.


• Rather, it consists of columns of bone called trabeculae little
beams), which contain lamellae, osteocytes, lacunae, and
canaliculi. Spaces between trabeculae are filled with red bone
marrow
2. Cartilage – less hard and more flexible than bone
Hyaline cartilage
• (hyalinos = glassy) contains a resilient gel as ground substance and
appears in the body as a bluish-white, shiny substance (can stain pink
or purple when prepared for microscopic examination; fine collagen
fibers are not visible with ordinary staining techniques
• Most common type
• prominent chondrocytes are found in lacunae surrounded by
perichondrium (exceptions: articular cartilage in joints and cartilage
of epiphyseal plates, where bones lengthen during growth).
• Most abundant cartilage in body; at ends of long bones, anterior
ends of ribs, nose, parts of larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchial tubes,
embryonic and fetal skeleton.
• Provides smooth surfaces for movement at joints, flexibility, and
support; weakest type of cartilage and can be fractured.
• Elastic cartilage
• Provides strength and elasticity; maintains shape of certain structures.
• has chondrocytes in threadlike network of elastic fibers within
extracellular matrix; perichondrium present.
• Found where a structure with elasticity is desired
• Lid on top of larynx (epiglottis), part of external ear (auricle), auditory
(eustachian) tubes.
• Fibrocartilage
• has chondrocytes among clearly visible thick bundles of collagen fibers
within extracellular matrix; lacks perichondrium.
• Pubic symphysis (where hip bones join anteriorly), intervertebral discs,
menisci (cartilage pads) of knee, portions of tendons that insert into
cartilage.
• Support and joining structures together. Strength and rigidity make it the
strongest type of cartilage.
• The cells of mature cartilage, called chondrocytes occur singly
or in groups within spaces called lacunae
• A covering of dense irregular connective
• tissue called the perichondrium surrounds the surface of
most cartilage and contains blood vessels and nerves and is
the source of new cartilage cells.
• Sincecartilage has no blood supply, it heals poorly following an
injury.
3. Dense regualr connective tissue
• Also called dense fibrous tissue
• Collagen fiber as matrix and between cash fiber is fibroblast
that manufacture the fibers
• Forms tendons (attach muscle to bone), most ligaments
(attach bone to bone), and
• aponeuroses (sheetlike tendons that attach muscle to muscle
or muscle to bone).
>>dense irregular connective tissue
4. Loose connective tissue
1. Areolar connective tissue
• is one of the most widely distributed connective tissues;
consists of fibers (collagen, elastic, reticular)
• arranged randomly and several kinds of cells (fibroblasts,
macrophages, plasma cells, adipocytes, mast cells, and a few
white blood cells) embedded in semifluid ground substance
• Cushions and protects the organs it sorrounds
• Functions as a universal packing tissue and connective tissue
glue because it helps hold the internal organs together and in
their proper position
• Lamina propria
• Reservoir of water
• It appears as an empty space
2. Adipose tissue
• Composed of adipocytes cells responsible for fat storage
• It forms the subcutaneous tissue beneath the skin where it
insulates the body and protect it from extremes heat and cold
• Protects organs individually
3. Reticular connective tissue
Consists of network of interwoven reticular fibers associated
with reticular cells
Lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen , thymus gland
BLOOD
They are considered connective tissues because they have a
same embryonic origin as the typical connective tissue
They contain the three components of a connective tissue
MUSCLE TISSUE
Skeletal Muscle Cardiac Muscle Smooth Muscle
Striations (+) (+) (-)
Movement Voluntary Involuntary Involuntary
Shape Long, ctlindrical, Spindle shaped
Function Motion, posture, Pumps blood to Motion
heat production, all parts of body. (constriction of
protection. blood vessels and
airways,
propulsion of
foods through
gastrointestinal
tract, contraction
of urinary bladder
and gallbladder).
Location Usually attached Heart wall Iris of eyes; walls
to bones by of hollow internal
tendons. structures such as
blood vessels,
airways to lungs,
stomach,
intestines,
Nervous Tissue
• Composed of two types of cells
• Conducting
• Neurons
• Modified to respond to specific stimuli
• Supportive
• Neuroglia
• Does not transmit impulses
• Transports nutrient from blood vessels to neurons and guards
against toxins by creating a barrier to many potentially harmful
substances
Neurons
• 3 types of neurons found in the human
• MC : multipolar
• Cell body
• Dendrites - are tapering, highly branched, and usually short cell
processes (extensions).
• They are the major receiving or input portion of a
neuron
• Axons - of a neuron is a single, thin, cylindrical process that may
be very long. It is the output portion of a neuron, conducting
nerve impulses toward another neuron or to some other tissue.
Wound Healing
• Inflammation – non specific response
• Immune response
• If parenchymal cells accomplish the repair, tissue
regeneration is possible, and a near-perfect reconstruction of
the injured tissue may occur.
• Parenchymal tissue - cells that constitute the functioning part of
the tissue or organ
• if fibroblasts of the stroma are active in the repair, the
replacement tissue will be a new connective tissue.
• The fibroblasts synthesize collagen and other extracellular
matrix materials that aggregate to form scar tissue, a process
known as fibrosis
• Stroma - bed or covering
• Because scar tissue is not specialized to perform the functions of the
parenchymal tissue, the original function of the tissue or organ is
impaired
• When tissue damage is extensive, as in large, open wounds, both
the connective tissue stroma and the parenchymal cells are active in
repair; fibroblasts divide rapidly, and new collagen fibers are
manufactured to provide structural strength.
• Blood capillaries also sprout new buds to supply the healing tissue
with the materials it needs.
• All these processes create an actively growing connective tissue
called granulation Tissue
• This new tissue forms across a wound or surgical incision to provide
a framework (stroma) that supports the epithelial cells that migrate
into the open area and fill it.
• The newly formed granulation tissue also secretes a fluid that kills
bacteria.
• Regeneration
• Wound dehiscence – the partial or complete separation of the
outer layers of a sutured incision
• A common cause is surgical error in which sutures or staples are
placed too far apart, too close to the incision edges, or under too
much pressure.
• It can also occur if sutures are removed too early or if there is a
deep wound infection
• Other contributing factors are age, chemotherapy, coughing,
straining, vomiting, obesity, smoking, and use of anticoagulants
such as aspirin
• A major complication of wound dehiscence is the protrusion of an
organ through the open wound, especially the intestines.