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WEEK 01: INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 1
Outline of this Course Module
(Part 1: Weeks 1-5)
 Introductions (Instructor, Students)
 Course Rules of Conduct, Objectives & Literature
 Student Assessment Methodology
 Basic Project Management Terminology
 Project Management Professional Associations
 Project Management Education and Training
 Project Management Resources on the Internet
Level 1  Employment Opportunities in Projects
(5 Weeks)  CDs/DVDs and Documentaries on Projects
 A Project‘s Parameters: Goal, Cost, Time, Uniqueness
 Projects: Simplicity, Complexity & Change
 Projects in History and the Contemporary Age
 Major Projects in Pakistan (Selected Examples)
 Project Categorization & Classification Systems
 The Project Life-Cycle
 A Holistic Perspective of Projects
 Popularizing Projects: A Macro- and Micro-Perspective
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 2
Outline of this Course Module
(Part 2: Weeks 6-9)
 Projects and the Organization
 Projects in Organizations: The Functional Form
 Projects in Organizations: The Weak Matrix Form
 Projects in Organizations: The Balanced Matrix Form
 Projects in Organizations: The Strong Matrix Form
 Projects in Organizations: The Project-Based Form
 The Project Team
Level 2  Relevant Empirical Research & Case Studies
(4 Weeks)  The Impact of Organizational Culture on Projects
 The Project Management Office & its Functions
 Project Portfolios of Organizations
 The Project Portfolio Management Process
 Project Portfolios Selection Models
 Project Portfolio Management Software Programmes
 Project Management Standards
 Key Project Management Standards (PMI, IPMA etc.)
 Overview of the PMBOK
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 3
Outline of this Course Module
(Part 3: Weeks 10-13)

 Overview of the Project Life-Cycle and its Five Phases


 Project Conceptualization & Initiation (Project Busi-
ness Case, Project Charter, Project Scope Statement,
Pre- & Feasibility Studies, Request for Proposals etc.)
 Project Planning (Areas of Planning Interest, Issues
Encountered in Making Project Management Plan,
Review of Diverse Project Management Plan Sample
Level 3 Documents with Subsidiary Plans)
(4 Weeks)  Project Execution (Gap Between Planning and execu-
tion, Identification and Management of Problems
Arising in the execution phase)
 Project Closure (Natural and Premature Termination
of Projects, Important Issues and Considerations to
Keep in Mind When Terminating Projects)
 Project Monitoring, Evaluation & Control (Role of
MEC on Projects, Review of key Monitoring,
Evaluating and Control Tools on Projects such as
Status Reports, Audits, Earned-Value Analysis etc.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 4
Self-Introduction by the Course Participants

All course participants are requested to introduce


themselves, individually and briefly, stating their:

 Full Name
 Higher Education and Professional Background
 Designation and Name of Employing Organization
 Experience Managing/Engaging Project Stakeholders
 Stakeholder and Project Mgmt. Courses Attended
 Reason(s) for Interest in this Course
 Expectations from this Course
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 5
How This Course Will Be Conducted

15 Classes @ 3 Hours = 45 Hours

Entire Course Material Available on the


Holistic & Integrated Teaching Approach
ELMS On-Line Blackboard System

Subject Exposure:
Original MS PowerPoint Presentations
Comprehensive and Insightful

Excellent Course Literature


Real-Life Examples and Case Studies
Supplemented by Occasional Handouts

Two Examinations (Midterm, Final)


Encourage Analytical, Critical and Creative
One Group Assignment & Periodic Mini-
Thinking (Cramming Severely Penalized!)
Assignments

Extensive Class Interaction: Vertical and Horizontal!


Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 6
The „Formula for Success“ In This Course

Success in this course can be attained by following a


simple formula:

Success = f(ABL, INT, INQ, ABS, CRIT, ALY, CRE, CS)

ABL: General Ability CRIT: Critical Thinking


INT: Interest ALY: Analytical Skill
INQ: Inquisitiveness CRE: Creative Skill
ABS: Absorption Capacity CS: Common Sense
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 7
(Chinese Philosopher Confucious)
(551 B.C – 479 B.C)

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 8
Rules for the
Course Participants

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 9
Rules for Course Participants: The Do‘s

Do listen to my lectures very attentively and carefully!


Listening is the basis for comprehension which is the pre-
requisite for performing well in this course. Inform me
immediately if you have problems comprehending my
lectures or the course literature. Do not hesitate other-
wise it may be too late for me to help you.

Do ask questions or bring up relevant points for discussion


in the classroom! You will not be punished for this! There
are no „stupid“ questions or discussions and I am very
patient with students.

Always be inquisitive, analytical and critical in your appro-


ach to learning project stakeholder management.

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 10
Rules for Course Participants: The Do‘s

Do read the prescribed course literature! It is the basic


requirement for comprehending project stakeholder
management and the prerequisite for performing well
in this demanding course!

Please note that using only my PowerPoint slides for


your examination preparation is NOT sufficient! YOU
MAY FAIL IF YOU DO SO! Some or all of the questions
in all your examinations over this semester may relate
to material in the recommended course text books
and handouts which in class may not have been dis-
cussed in detail or at all! An excellent piece of advice
for you: Read from the beginning of the course and
NOT towards the end! You won‘t regret it.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 11
Rules for Course Participants: The Do‘s

Do visit me at my office individually or as a group, if you


have a course-related problem or problems and desire
counseling! Friday is my weekly student consultation day
(from 10 A.M to 6 P.M). My e-Mail is
aurangzeb_khan@comsats.edu.pk

Do fill out the anonymous course evaluation and course


instructor evaluation forms at our online student informa-
tion system COMSIS at the end of the semester! All our
instructors have worked very hard to provide you with the
best possible insights into project management and its
specialized areas and over time we want to continuously and
significantly improve the quality of our modules. Your
honest and constructive criticism is very valuable for us and
we certainly welcome it!
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 12
Rules for Course Participants: The Dont‘s
Don‘t be late to class! 6 P.M means 6 P.M sharp and not
a second later! Two roll calls will be taken (at the
beginning of class and after the break). Students who
are late will be marked absent!
Don‘t ask me to mark you present if you are going to
be absent in that class! I don‘t care what events in your
personal or professional lives prevent you from coming
to my class. Visiting family and friends, engagements,
weddings, hospitalizations, funerals, official committ-
ments etc. are your issues, not mine. If you are absent
in my class, you‘ll simply be marked absent. Period!

Don‘t come to class just to get marked present and then wander off to the can-
teen for gossip or refreshments, or leave the campus, outside the 15-minute
customary pause. Anyone caught doing this will have their attendance revoked.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 13
Rules for Course Participants: The Dont‘s

Don‘t use cell phones in class! Switch them off or put


on silent mode prior to entering the classroom. Do not
run in and out for making or taking calls and do not
send SMS messages while the class is in progress. Such
behaviour distracts the class and disrupts my presen-
tation. If making or answering calls is so important to
you, stay at your home or office and do them there,
but do not come to my class!

Don‘t chit-chat among yourselves, distract the atten-


tion of other course participants or behave immaturely
in the class! You are only hurting yourself and your
colleagues, not me. As educated adults, I expect you all
without exception to behave as such from the minute
you enter my class to the minute you leave it!
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 14
Rules for Course Participants: The Dont‘s

Don‘t come to me before, during or after


classes with the request that I permit you to
transfer data files from my laptop onto your
USB flash or external hard drives!

From experience, students‘ flash drives often


contain a number of very nasty viruses,
worms, trojans etc. and their use entails a high
risk of data corruption on my system which is
unacceptable.

Class PowerPoint Presentations and supple-


mentary files will be e-mailed weekly to every
student by our MPM Programme Assistant Mr.
Zahid Malik.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 15
Rules for Course Participants: The Dont‘s

Don‘t procrastinate on your project assignments! Start work


immediately after receiving your topics. Many students do
nothing until the submission deadline is around the corner
and then run frantically to me at the eleventh hour
complaining about the problems they are having in getting
information for their assignments. If you start working early
you won‘t stress yourself out.

Don‘t pester me for more marks! I evaluate my students


objectively and actually devote considerable time to read
line by line through each examination paper and project
assignment. From nothing comes nothing – if your work is
crap, be prepared to get a crappy evaluation from me! And
please don‘t whine about it.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 16
Rules for Course Participants: The Dont‘s

Don‘t follow the „rote“ (Learning by


Memorization) approach which you may
have grown accustomed to since your
schooldays. It is the worst thing you can
do in my class – apart from outright
misbehaviour, cheating or plagiarism.
My PowerPoint slides are designed as a
subject guideline only and are NOT meant
to be memorized. DO NOT reproduce the
contents of my or someone elses slides in
your project assignments/examinations.

In case of reproduction, marks will be heavily deducted and your grade in


this course will drop like a stone from the sky.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 17
Rules for Course Participants: The Dont‘s

Don‘t miss out on your project assignment and your


examinations! Setting repeat examinations is a big
nuisance for me and some marks are normally man-
datorily deducted by our department as a disincen-
tive for absence, intended or unintended!

In the event that you have missed out on your


sessional or midterm examinations due to compel-
ling circumstances, I will schedule one repeat exami-
It is your responsibility to nation. If you fail to show up for the repeat examina-
immediately contact me if tion, you will be given zero marks which will then be
you missed a class assign-
ment or examination! considered as final.
Note that as per CIIT rules absolutely NO RETAKE OF
FINAL EXAMINATIONS IS ALLOWED!
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 18
Rules for Course Participants: The Dont‘s

Don‘t cheat in the sessional or final


NO CHEATING & PLAGIARISM!
examinations! Your paper may be
cancelled by the department or, at
the very least, you will lose a percen-
tage of your marks.
If your project assignments have, in
full or in part, been plagiarized or
simply copy-pasted from the World
Wide Web without referencing, you
will get zero marks and be reassigned
another topic. Plagiarism can be de-
termined using specialized software
on material submitted electronically
to me for evaluation.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 19
Course Objectives
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 20
Main Objectives of this Course Module

This course aims to acquaint the students


comprehensively and at depth with pro-
ject management using high-quality
current literature and numerous examples
and case studies on this very interesting,
challenging, and increasingly important
field of management.
It seeks to motivate the students to apply
their class-acquired knowledge to projects
of different types and levels of complexity
which they are or will be directly or indi-
rectly involved in professionally, and to
help them undertake their projects more
systematically, effectively and efficiently.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 21
Main Objectives of this Course Module

This course aims to show the ubiquity of


projects, which are a pillar of human civili-
zation and accomplishment, and show
that the development of the national /
global economy and society is dependent
in large part on them.
It also intends to show that project mana-
gement has, over the past few decades,
evolved into a very advanced body of
knowledge and that a good understanding
of the subject is crucial for managing a
modern organization sucessfully and pro-
fessionally.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 22
Main Objectives of this Course Module

This course aims to promote netwoking


between the MPM participants and to
encourage them to share, inside and
outside class, their personal experiences
working on projects.
It also seeks to stimulate students‘ inte-
rest in project management as a career
option.
It strives to set a benchmark in project
management education at universities
across Pakistan and to motivate subject
teachers to continuously improve their
instruction standards and quality.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 23
Main Objectives of this Course Module

This course aims to provide students


with the basic knowledge they need for
qualifying the project management certi-
fication examinations being offered by
the Project Management Institute and
other professional associations.

[Note: This foundation course in project


management is not a substitute for pro-
fessional certification examinations. It
does, however, equip students with the
knowledge which is required to attempt
these examinations subsequently].

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 24
Student Assessment

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 25
Student Assessment
(The A-Student)
The „A“-Student displays a very high level of mo-
tivation to learn project management. Punctual
and attentive, bright, ambitious and hardwork-
ing, he/she is an avid reader and grasps the sub-
ject matter easily. The „A“-Student is also inquisi-
tive and likes to discuss topics raised in class. It is
a pleasure and an inspiration to work with such
students.
A-Students confidently acquire a holistic perspec-
tive and in-depth knowledge of project manage-
ment concepts, processes and tools, show excel-
lent analytical and critical thinking skills, are cre-
ative and possess the ability to easily apply class-
acquired knowledge to real-life case situations
encountered in the classroom or workplace.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 26
Student Assessment
(The Average Student)
The „average“student is generally a good
student whose work does exhibit some
noticeable qualitative deficiencies.
Shortcomings arise in different ways. For
example, average students may under-
stand the basic project management con-
cepts, processes and tools, and they may
have familiarized themselves with all im-
portant aspects of the subject, but they
encounter considerable difficulty in apply-
ing their knowledge to real-life situations.
They may also not fully comprehend the
holistic concept of project management
on which this course is based.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 27
Student Assessment
(The Problem Student)

Problem students are a BIG PAIN in my A**!


Typically they are disinterested in attending
class, constantly fidget, chat and run outside
the lecture hall, have poor command over the
English language, are unwilling to read the
recommended course literature and perform
their assignments, and display a tendency to
„rote learn“.
Not surprisingly, these students have great difficulty grasping
the subject course material. They usually find it highly challen-
ging to apply the concepts, processes and tools they were ex-
posed to in this course, both in class examinations and at their
workplaces. I try to avoid this type of student like the plague!
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 28
Course Assessment

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 29
The Midterm & Final Examinations

All students must sit through a mid-


term examination (2 hours in duration,
25% total course marks) and a terminal
examination (3 hours, 50% total course
marks).
Both examinations cover the material
studied in class from the beginning of
Do not underestimate the course until the respective exami-
the difficulty level of
these two examinations.
nation date.
You will be challenged! Students who can apply their know-
USE YOUR MINDS AND
ledge holistically and creatively to real
READ THE QUESTIONS or fictitious situations can expect to
VERY CAREFULLY! perform well in both examinations.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 30
Guidelines for Midterm & Final Examinations

 Mid-term Examination (two mandatory


questions); Final Examination (three or
max. four mandatory questions).
 Questions may contain subquestions
which must all be answered. Questions
do not necessarily carry equal marks.
All questions are essay-
 Quality of answers, not quantity is the
style (conceptual, appli- main criteria of evaluation.
cative) in nature.  Zero marks for irrelevant material or
Often not much writing „reproducing“ my PPT-slides.
is expected – but plenty
of thinking is always
 Laptops, digital diaries, calculators, cell
required! NO MCQ’s phones, books, notes etc. are not per-
WILL BE ASKED! mitted in the examinations.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 31
Samples of Past Examination Papers
(MBA & MS Project Management Courses)

MBA First Sessional Examination Sample 1

MBA First Sessional Examination Sample 2

MBA First Sessional Examination Sample 3

Project
Management
MBA Second Sessional Examination Sample 1 is also
about using
MBA Second Sessional Examination Sample 2 plain
common
MBA Second Sessional Examination Sample 3 Sense!

MS Midterm Examination 1 2
MS Final Examination 1 2
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 32
The Team-Based Class Assignment

The Team-Based Class Assign-


ment is a mandatory part of the
course. It carries 25% of the total
course marks.
The class assignment‘s purpose is
to determine if, how and to what
extent the concepts, processes,
Assignments have a
bridging function,
tools etc. studied in this course
directly linking have been, or can be, applied in
classroom learning projects which the students un-
with on-the-job work.
dertook in the past or which they
are presently undertaking.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 33
The Assignment Guidelines

 Think Carefully Before Attempting.


 Quality and Original Work Only.
 Contribution by all Team Members.
 Relate to Your Work Experience.
 Late and/or Voluminous Submissions,
and Resubmissions not acceptable.
Time flies! Therefore,  Submit Hard Copy and eDocument.
do not procrastinate  Use Assignment Structure Template.
over your assignments.
 No Plagiarism/Copy-Pasting from the
You may find them to
be more demanding
Internet (assignment gets zero marks
than they seem at first for this!).
glance.  No Arguing Over Marks!
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 34
The Assignment Structure Template

 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
One-page summarization of your class assignment.
 ToC, LIST OF TABLES, FIGURES & ABB.
 INTRODUCTION
Context, justification, scope, objectives, methodology,
value and limitations of the assignment.
 ANALYSIS
Application of class-acquired knowledge and personal
experience. Best approach: Holistic, analytical, critical,
Quality takes prece- creative and thorough.
dence over quantity!  CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS
Class assignments Restrict to a maximum of three pages.
must show originality  APPENDIX
and the ability to apply Include only assignment-relevant documents.
knowledge learned in  BIBLIOGRAPHY & WEBLIOGRAPHY
class. Alphabetical listing of all documents (books, articles,
reports etc.) and websites used in the assignment.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 35
The Project Report
• A good project report must be based on a sound concept and well
researched using the best possible available pool of primary and/or
secondary data and information.
Executive Summary
• The introduction should be brief (max. 4 pages). The research
(excluding Annex and Bibliography)

Title Page objective(s), hypotheses and methodology must be clear, concise,


relevant and logical.
Table of Contents
20 - 25 PAGES MAXIMUM

• The analysis – qualitative and/or quantitative – must


List of Tables, Graphs, constitute the bulk of the research report and relate directly to
Charts and the theory of project management. Footnotes can be included. A
Abbreviations critical and holistic perspective is essential when undertaking the
analysis, which must not be a mere reproduction of descriptive
Introduction
details! Such details may be included if they are relevant as a basis
(Research Objectives,
Hypotheses, of reference for the analysis.
Methodology) • The conclusions and recommendations (max. 3 pages) should
sum up the report‘s essential findings and give recommendations
Analysis
for correcting major practical shortcomings which may have been
Conclusion and identified and examined in the course of the study.
Recommendations
• The appendix contains any important support documents not
Appendix included in the main text body; the bibliography section must
include all documented reference sources (source title, author, date
Bibliography and place of publication, publisher and page number) along with
relevant details relating to interviews held etc.

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 36
Recommended Course Text Books
Project Management: Strategic Design and Implementation
David I. Cleland & Lewis R. Ireland
McGraw Hill, 4th edition, 2002
ISBN: 0-07-139310-2

Project Management: The Managerial Process


Clifford F. Gray & Erik W. Larson
McGraw Hill, 3rd edition, 2006
ISBN: 0-07-060093-7

Project Management: A Managerial Approach


Jack R. Meredith & Samuel J. Mantel, Jr.
John Wiley & Sons, 6th edition, 2006
ISBN: 0-471-74277-5

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 37
Who Should Study Project Management?

Anyone directly or indirectly involved in initiating,


planning, executing, monitoring, evaluating and/or
controlling a project in a position which involves a
substantive level of decision-making, responsibility,
and other close involvement should be thoroughly
familiar with all the subject areas, concepts, pro-
cesses and tools of project management.

A good project management knowledge platform


will increase the likelihood of the project attaining
its goal within time and budget.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 38
Who Should Study Project Management?

At the very least a project‘s key stakeholders


– i.e., its manager, team members, financers,
consultants, contractors, subcontractors and
external suppliers of tangible inputs and
services, the senior and resource managers
of the organization(s) which are executing
the project and the project customers / users
- should all understand the methodology
being used to undertake the project.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 39
Professionals Who Should Be Thoroughly
Familiar With Project Management (Examples)
Architects
Consultants
Contractors
In the course of
Development Officials their professional
Economists lives, these stake-
Engineers
holders would
Government Officials
IT Professionals normally be
Managers directly involved
Natural & Social Scientists in a large number
Public Policy Makers
Public Administrators
of projects
Researchers
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 40
Look at Projects in Their Broader Context!

Mittelalterlicher Stadt am Fluss – Karl Friedrich Schinkel, 1815


Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 41
Basic Terminology in
Project Management

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 42
Basic Terminology

 Projects Many definitions are asso-


ciated with each of these
 Subprojects
terms.
 Programs
 Portfolios Sample definitions, exam-
ples and basic details are
 Processes
contained in the following
 Project Management slides.

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 43
What is a Project? (Definition #1)

(Guide to the Project Management – Body of Knowledge, The Project


Management Institute PMI, 3rd edition, 2004, p. 5)

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 44
What is a Project? (Definition #2)

(Robert Wysocki, Robert Beck Jr. & Daniel B. Crane, Effective Project
Management, John Wiley & Sons, 2002, p. 65)
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 45
What is a Project? (Definition #3)

(Clifford F. Gray & Erik W. Larson, Project Management: The Managerial


Process, 2nd edition, p. 15)

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 46
What is a Project? (Definition #4)

(J.R. Turner, The Handbook of Project-Based Management: Improving Pro-


cesses for Achieving Your Strategic Objectives, Mcgraw Hill: New York, 1992)

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 47
What is a Project? (Definition #5)

(David I. Cleland & Lewis R. Ireland, Project Management: Design and


Strategic Implementation, 4th edition, p. 10)
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 48
What are Subprojects?

Subprojects are smaller, more manage-


able components of larger, more com-
plex projects.
Subprojects have their own goals and
outputs which together constitute the
final project output/deliverable. Like
the main project in which they are
integrated, subprojects have their own
scope, schedules, costs, human resou-
rces, risks etc.
Subprojects are staffed by project team members and are headed by
“subproject managers” who – like the project manager - must have
excellent decision-making, interpersonal and other requisite skills, and
be in a position to manage the implementation of the sub-project
work effectively and efficiently.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 49
Subprojects
Example: The Sydney Olympic Games 2000

Human Resources Test Games and


Events
and Volunteers Trial Events

Venues, Facilities Sponsorship


Cultural Olympiad
Accommodation Management

Transport Pre-Games Training


The Sydney Olympic
Games 2000 was a highly
Media Facilities
IT-Projects complex project compri-
and Coordination
sing several distinct activity
Opening and Closing areas, each of which could
Telecommunications
Ceremonies be considered as subpro-
jects in their own right, and
Security
Arrangements
Public Relations which all had to be integra-
ted and coordinated within
Medical Care Financing the framework of the over-
all Olympic project.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 50
What is a Program?

A program is basically a group AFFORESTATION


of related projects which are

E X AM P L E S
ILLITERACY ERADICATION
managed in a coordinated way
RURAL ELECTRIFICATION
to obtain benefits and control
not available from managing IMMUNIZATION
them individually.
POVERTY ALLEVIATION

O F
Project A
PRIVATIZATION

P R O G R AM S
Project B SPACE EXPLORATION

Program X Project C URBAN REGENERATION


Project D WATER RESOURCE MGMT.
Project E
WEAPONIZATION
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 51
Example of a Program

Project for Upgradation of


Manufacturing Equipment
A CAPITAL
INVESTMENT
PROGRAM Project for Training Personnel

may Project for Creation of New and


comprise
Expansion of Existing Facilities
following
projects
Project for Acquisition of
Large-Scale Funding

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 52
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 53
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 54
Programs & Projects: Similarities

 Programs and projects have goals and objectives


which define their purpose of existence
 Programs and projects have life-spans defining a star-
ting and ending point in time
 Programs and projects consume resources and nece-
ssarily incur a cost
 Programs and projects require application of a metho-
dology and must be managed professionally to bolster
their chances of success
 Programs and projects help organizations achieve
their mission and adding value to them.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 55
Programs & Projects: Differences

X Programs may have multiple overarching goals; pro-


jects have one prime goal
X A program has a comparatively longer life-span, and
costs more than the combination of all the projects
which constitute it
X A program is inherently more complex than a consti-
tuting project – it has a broader scope and may
require extensive coordination between its various
constituting projects
X Whereas a project results in the creation of an
output and is then ended, a program must integrate
and maintain the operationality of that output for a
specified period of time
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 56
Project Portfolios

Organization’s Project & Program Portfolio

Project Portfolio Program Portfolio

Sub-Portfolios Sub-Portfolios
(Categories A, B, C …) (Categories I, II, III …)

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 57
The Project Portfolio

The project portfolio is the complete


set of projects which an organization
(or its constituent divisions, depart-
ments) is undertaking.
Projects typically differ from each
other in type, complexity, resource
requirement, completion time, risk,
priority, etc.
Some portfolios may be quite large,
comprising dozens or hundreds of
single projects.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 58
The Project Portfolio

The projects in the portfolio may be


in various stages of initiation,
planning and execution at any given
point in time.

Portfolios are inherently dynamic.


Their composition necessarily chan-
ges over time as some constituent
projects reach the end of their life-
cycle or are prematurely terminated
and new projects are added.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 59
The Project Portfolio

A challenge for organizations is to


devise an effective portfolio
management system for identifying,
prioritizing, selecting and monitoring
those projects which are closely
aligned with its mission, goals and
objectives and which ultimately will
add value to the organization.

Failure to devise such a system can


spell big problems for the organiza-
tion.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 60
The Project Portfolio

A large chunk of an organization‘s


resources - financial, material,
infrastructural, human, information-
al etc. - will be continuously tied up
in its project and program portfolios.

Resources must be utilized „optimal-


ly“, i.e. They must be used both
effectively and efficiently.

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 61
What is a Process?

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 62
What is a Process?

According to the Project Management Institute,


a process can be defined as:

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 63
Project Management Processes
PROCESS INPUTS Process Structure and Maturity, PROCESS OUTPUTS
(Managerial) Optimization and Benchmarking, (Selected Examples)
Templates, Constraints, Policies etc.

Information and Project Business Case


Documentation

INTER-RELATED PRO-
Technology CESS STEPS / ACTIONS Project Portfolio Mix

Tools (Qualitative, Quantitative) Project Feasibility Report

Outputs of Other Project


Management Processes
1 2 3 N Project Master Plan
(or Subsidiary Plans)

Customer Change
Material Inputs
Transformation of Inputs to Outputs Request Approval

Revised Cost and


Stakeholder Interaction TIME & COST Schedule Baseline

Need, Requests, Instructions Process Effectiveness and Efficiency Project Status Report

Quality of Information, Tool Project management uses


The output of one project management process normally becomes input in
Effectiveness, Stakeholder Ability, processes extensively to produce
another (or other) process(es). Deficiencies in one or more of the processes
Knowledge, Competence, Experi- “deliverables” (sample above).
may consequently reverberate across the entire project management pro-
ence, Insight, Communication, Some processes are quite complex
cess chain, giving rise to problems and issues in the project life-cycle.
Cooperation and Coordination. and have a high risk of error.

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 64
Project Management Work Step Diagramme
(Steps in Screening A Project)

Project Proposal Idea

Data Collection and


Back-Up
Need / Strategic Fit/
ROI / Payback Risk

Self-Evaluation of
Project Criteria

Priority Team
Evaluates Proposal
and Reviews
Periodic assessment Return for More
Portfolio for Risk
of Priorities Information
Balance

Assign Priority,
Reject Hold for resources, Project
Resources Manager & Evaluate
Progress

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 65
Processes Should Be Documented!

All project management processes should be


identified and described, with each process task
carefully analyzed in terms of its input(s) and
output(s) plus its estimated cost, duration and risk
factors, graphically illustrated and subsequently
documented for reference by project stakeholders in a
“project process directory”.
This project process directory should be periodically
revised and the processes therein modified, simplified
or, where necessary, „reengineered“ to improve their
effectiveness and efficiency.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 66
What is Project Management?

(Project Management Body of Knowledge, PMBOK Guide, the Project


Management Institute, 3rd edition, 2004, p. 8)
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 67
What is Project Management?

(Robert K. Wysocki , Robert Beck Jr. & David B. Crane, Effective Project
Management, 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2002, p. 79)

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 68
What is Project Management?

[ISO 9001:2000]

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 69
What is Project Management?

(Harold Kerzner, Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planing,


Scheduling and Controlling, John Wiley & Sons: New York et. al., 7th edition,
2001, p. 4)

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 70
Functions of Project Management

Project Management is basically about planning,


organizing, executing & controlling projects within an
imposed set of constraints. It is also about leadership
and vision, steering people in the right direction, utilizing
limited resources efficiently, and effectively bringing
about change under varying levels of complexity.

Specialized (usually quantitative) project management


tools – which are often the prime focus of interest by
students of the subject, their instructors and novice
project managers - are of secondary importance.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 71
Functions of Project Management

Project Management seeks to meet - and where


possible to exceed - stakeholder needs (the identified
requirements) as well as stakeholder expectations
(unidentified requirements) for a project within the
imposed constraints of scope, cost, time and quality.

Project Management is an evolving area of knowledge


striving for continuous self-improvement over time.
Much remains to be done in certain areas.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 72
Benefits of Project
Management
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 73
Some Benefits of Project Management

Is consistent with the principles of general management


Constitutes a „strategic tool“ for organization‘s to attain their
mission, goals and objectives
Consitutes a highly developed, flexible and reliable process-
driven framework for managing different types of projects
Is applicable to any project undertaken by any organization
Is acknowledged as the best way of managing complex pro-
jects and is the only practical way of managing some projects
Offers a higher likelihood of the project being a success
Provides a solutions-driven approach
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 74
Some Benefits of Project Management

Ensures effective and efficient application of resources


Allows the estimation of project cost and schedule often with
a fairly high degree of accuracy
Takes project risks and quality standards into consideration
Permits a systematic management and engagement of project
stakeholders
Incorporates a monitoring, evaluation and controlling system
to keep the project on track
Has a ‚learning effect‘ which is beneficial for future projects

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 75
Essential Functions of Project Management

Project Management helps organizations – public,


commercial & not-for-profit - deal with the pressure
of change in their internal and external environments
(global, economic, market, social, political, regulatory,
technological etc.) which are characterized by a high
and increasing degree of complexity, dynamism and
uncertainty.

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 76
Essential Functions of Project Management

Project Management offers a highly developed


process-driven framework for the effective and
efficient realization of an organization’s projects and
attainment of its goals, objectives and mission.

Project Management is consequently an important


“strategic tool” which is indispensible for an organi-
zation’s survival and growth.

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan


Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 77
A Word of Caution on
Project Management
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 78
A Word of Caution on Project Management

Project Management teaches “best


practices” based on years of experience
with projects in diverse fields across the
globe.
Always keep in mind that what works
well in one project situation some-
where may not necessarily work well in
another.
Use good judgement and be cognizant
of Project Management’s context-
sensitivity!
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 79
A Word of Caution on Project Management

Project Management offers no guaran-


tee that the project will be successful in
the “conventional sense” (i.e. that it
achieves its goal within scope, time and
cost constraints and to the satisfaction
of its key stakeholders).
The application of Project Management
does, however, increase the chances of
the project succeeding - or decreases its
chances of failing.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 80
A Word of Caution on Project Management

The intensity of project management


application must take into account the
project’s specific context & complexity.

Just as one wouldn’t commission a ba-


zooka, flame thrower or F-16 fighter jet
to kill a cockroach, it would be foolish to
apply the full gamut of project manage-
ment processes/tools to a project which
could be successfully managed using a
much simpler approach.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 81
A Word of Caution on Project Management

Sometimes project management may


bring few, if any, substantive benefits for
organizations – when, for e.g., key stake-
holders fail to appreciate project mana-
gement’s value as a “strategic tool” for
achieving the organization’s mission,
goals & objectives, when its “culture” is
non-conducive for project management,
where there is no appropriate infrastruc-
ture in place for project management
and little knowledge of or interest in it -
and where is no real need for project
management.
Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 82