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What is a JOB?
◦ According to Dale Yoder
“A job is a collection of tasks, duties and responsibilities which as a
whole, is regarded as a regular assignment to individual employees
and which is different from other assignments”.

Each job is different: peon, clerk manager, VP, MD

Job analysis
◦ Is the process of getting information about jobs:
◦ what the worker does
◦ how he gets it done; why he does it
◦ skill, education and training required
◦ relationship to other jobs, physical demands
◦ Environmental conditions

◦ Edwin B. Flippo has defined job analysis as the process of studying and collecting information
relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. The immediate products of this
analysis are job descriptions and job specifications”.
Job Analysis = Job Description + Job
Features of job analysis:
◦ Work activities

◦ Human behaviors

◦ Machine, tools, and equipment

◦ Performance standards

◦ Job context: physical working conditions, work schedule, and the organizational and social
context, for instance, the number of people with whom the employee would normally interact.

◦ Human requirement: job-related knowledge or skill and required personal attributed.

◦ Human Resource Planning
◦ Recruitment and Selection
◦ Training and Development
◦ Placement and Orientation
◦ Job Evaluation
◦ Performance Appraisal
◦ Personnel Information
◦ Health and Safety
◦ Counselling
Process of Job Analysis

◦ Organisational Job Analysis

◦ Selecting Representative Jobs for Analysis
◦ Collection of Data for Job Analysis
◦ Preparing Job Description
◦ Preparing Job Specification
Method for collection of information:
◦ Job Performance
◦ Diary/log
◦ Personal Observation
◦ Interview
◦ Checklist
◦ Questionnaire
Developing questionnaires
◦ Questionnaire is a systematic compilation of questions that are submitted to a group of
population called samples from whom the required information is acquired.

◦ Know the goal of your questionnaire/Decide the Information needed

◦ Types of questions/ Know the most effective question type to use
◦ Formulation of questions
◦ Pilot your questionnaire/Test the questions
◦ Develop the complete questionnaire
◦ ‘Inter’ and ‘View’ means ‘between view’ or seeing each other.
◦ This means that both the individuals/groups involved in an interview get to know about one

◦ According to Gary Dessler, “An interview is a procedure designed to obtain information from a
person’s oral response to oral inquiries.”
Based on the count of Based on the planning Based on judging the Based on the facilities
Based on the task
people involved involved abilities or settings

Personal interview A structured interview Telephonic interview Apprenticeship interview
Group interview Unstructured interview Online interview Evaluation interview

Panel interview Depth interview Job Fair interview Promotion interview

Stress interview Lunch interview Counseling interview

Tea interview Disciplinary interview

Persuasive interview
Steps For Effective Interview

◦ Preparation for the interview

◦ Conducting the interview
◦ Closing the interview
◦ Evaluation of the results
Problems in Job Analysis
Guidelines for Job Analysis
◦ Must be a continuous process
◦ Job based analysis
◦ Determination of minimum job requirements
◦ Various methods
Job Descriptions

◦ Is a document
◦ Intended to provide job applicants
◦ With an outline
◦ Of the main duties and responsibilities
◦ Of the role for which they are applying
◦ Job applicant:
◦ to determine whether the role is in line with their skill set
◦ whether it is a job they actually want to do

◦ Organisation’s perspective:
◦ vital in ensuring that the applications received for the position closely
match the needs of the role itself

◦ To provide the employee with the expectations that are required of them in the
◦ To provide enough detail to help the candidate assess if they are suitable for the
◦ To support the recruitment team during the selection process
◦ To help formulate questions for the interview process
◦ To allow the prospective employee to determine their role or standing within the
structure of the organization
◦ To assist in forming a legally binding contract of employment
◦ To help set goals and target for the employee upon joining
◦ To help formulate training and development plans
Structure of a Job Description
◦ Job Title
◦ Location
◦ Reports to
◦ Job Purpose (a brief line or two)
◦ Responsibilities/duties (detailed)
◦ Essential and desirable criteria
◦ Company/ team overview
◦ Application information
Job Description :
Human Resources Manager

◦ Job Responsibilities:
◦ Maintains and enhances the organization's human resources by planning,
implementing, and evaluating employee relations and human resources
policies, programs, and practices.
Job Duties:
◦ Maintains the work structure by updating job requirements and job descriptions
for all positions.
◦ Maintains organization staff by establishing a recruiting, testing, and interviewing
program; counseling managers on candidate selection; conducting and analyzing
exit interviews; recommending changes.
◦ Prepares employees for assignments by establishing and conducting orientation
and training programs.
◦ Maintains a pay plan by conducting periodic pay surveys; scheduling and
conducting job evaluations; preparing pay budgets; monitoring and scheduling
individual pay actions; recommending, planning, and implementing pay structure
◦ Ensures planning, monitoring, and appraisal of employee work results by training
managers to coach and discipline employees; scheduling management conferences
with employees; hearing and resolving employee grievances; counseling employees
and supervisors.
◦ Maintains management guidelines by preparing, updating, and recommending
human resource policies and procedures.
◦ Maintains professional and technical knowledge by attending educational
workshops; reviewing professional publications; establishing personal networks;
participating in professional societies.
◦ Maintains human resource staff by recruiting, selecting, orienting, and training
◦ Contributes to team effort by accomplishing related results as needed.
Skills and Qualifications:
◦ Hiring
◦ Human Resources Management
◦ Benefits Administration
◦ Performance Management
◦ Communication Processes
◦ Compensation and Wage Structure
◦ Supports Diversity
◦ Classifying Employees
◦ Employment Law
◦ Laws Against Sexual Harassment
Job Specification:
◦ Is a written statement of
◦ educational qualifications
◦ specific qualities
◦ level of experience
◦ communication skills required to perform a job
Purpose of Job Specification
◦ Helps candidates analyze whether they are eligible to apply for a particular job
vacancy or not.
◦ It helps recruiting team of an organization understand what level of
qualifications, qualities and set of characteristics should be present in a candidate
to make him or her eligible for the job opening.
◦ Job Specification gives detailed information about any job including job
responsibilities, desired technical and physical skills, conversational ability and
much more.
◦ It helps in selecting the most appropriate candidate for a particular job.
Components of Job Specification
◦ Educational Qualification: It covers their basic school education, graduation, master degree, other

◦ Experience: It includes work experience which can be from a specific industry, position, duration or in a
particular domain.

◦ Skills & Knowledge: Skills like leadership, communication management, time management, team
management are mentioned.

◦ Personality traits and characteristics: The way in which a person behaves in a particular situation, handles
complex problems, generic behavior. Also covers emotional intelligence.
Human Resource Planning
◦ Assess your current human resource capacity

◦ Forecast future HR requirements

◦ Identify HR gaps

◦ Integrate the plan with your organization’s overall strategy

Importance of human resource planning
◦ HR department is prepared for changing requirements

◦ Your organization is not caught off-guard in the shifting workforce market

◦ Adapt faster to the introduction of automation or advanced technologies

◦ Gain competitive advantage through rapid rollout of new products or into new

◦ Better anticipate the need for critical skills during growth phases

◦ Be proactive by honing the skills of current workforce in order to move into new
factors affecting human resource planning
◦ Employee attrition
◦ Layoffs
◦ Likely vacancies
◦ Retirements
◦ Promotions
◦ End of contract terms
A. Steps of human resource planning process
◦ 1. Human Resource Demand Forecasting
◦ Short Range Forecasting
◦ Long Range Forecasting

◦ 2. Human Resource Supply Forecasting

◦ 3. Initiating Human Resource Actions

◦ Hiring
◦ Training and development
◦ Reduction in workforce
B. Major stages of human resource planning
process includes
◦ 1. Analyzing Organizational Plan based on
◦ on economic forecast

◦ company’s sales and expansion forecast

◦ labour market forecast

◦ 2. Forecasting Demand

◦ 3. Forecasting Supply

◦ 4. Identifying Human Resource Gap

◦ 5. Future Course of Action and Controlling.

C. Steps of human resource planning process
◦ 1. Forecasting Demand

◦ 2. Forecasting Supply

◦ 3. Developing HR Plans

◦ 4. Evaluation




SURPLUS: Restrict Hirirng SHORTAGE: Promote

1. Recruitment & Selection

2. Training & Development
3. Promotion
4. Retention


Organizational environment
◦ Consists of both external and internal factors

◦ Environment must be scanned

◦ To determine development and forecasts of factors that will influence

organizational success.
Environmental Scanning
◦ Is the process through which organizations maintain
◦ awareness of the opportunities and threats presented by the surroundings
◦ both macro and micro
◦ within which they operate
◦ Helps the managers to decide the future course of action
◦ organization must take advantage of the opportunities
◦ minimize the threats


◦ Environmental Threat and Opportunities Profile

◦ Mass information related to forces in the environment.

◦ They deal with events, trends, issues and expectations.

◦ Structuring of environmental issues is necessary to make them meaning full for strategy
Why ETOP is needed?
◦ Helps organization to identify Opportunities and Threats

◦ To consolidate and strengthen organizations position

◦ To know where the organizations stands with respect to its environment

◦ Helps in formulating appropriate strategies

◦ Helps in formulating SWOT analysis

Environmental Threat and Opportunity
◦ Is a technique to structure environmental issues.
◦ ETOP involves:

◦ Dividing the environment into different sectors. Each sectors can be

subdivided into sub sectors.
◦ Analyzing the impact of each sector and subsector on the organization.
◦ Describe the impact in the form of a statement.
Advantage of ETOP
◦ It provides a clear idea of which sector and sub sectors have favourable impact
on the organization. It helps interpret the result of environment analysis.

◦ The organization can assess its competitive position.

◦ Appropriate strategies can be formulated to take advantage of opportunities and

counter the threat.
Prepare ETOP
◦ Dividing the environment into different sectors: political, economical, social,
legal, technologies, ecological etc.

◦ Analyzing the impact of each sector on the organization

◦ Sub dividing each sector into sub sector

◦ Impact of each sub-sector on organization

SWOT analysis

◦ Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis

◦ Is a framework for identifying and analyzing the internal and external factors that
can have an impact on the viability of a project, product, place or person

◦ Is considered a powerful support for decision-making

A SWOT analysis can offer helpful perspectives at any stage of an effort. You might use it
◦ Explore possibilities for new efforts or solutions to problems.
◦ Make decisions about the best path for your initiative.
◦ Determine where change is possible.
◦ Adjust and refine plans mid-course. A new opportunity might open wider avenues, while a new
threat could close a path that once existed.
Elements of a SWOT analysis

◦ Strengths: Internal attributes and resources that support a successful outcome.

◦ Weaknesses: Internal attributes and resources that work against a successful


◦ Opportunities: External factors that the entity can capitalize on or use to its

◦ Threats: External factors that could jeopardize the entity's success.

PEST Analysis
◦ PEST stands for Political, Economic, Social, and Technological factors
◦ Helps organizations take better business decisions and improve efficiency by
studying various factors which might influence a business such as political,
economic, social, and technology.
Benefits of a PEST analysis

◦ A greater understanding of your company

◦ More effective long-term strategic planning

◦ Heightened attention to potential threats and dangers

◦ Insight for valuable business opportunities

QUEST Analysis
◦ Quick Environmental Scanning Technique

◦ A four step process

1. Strategists make observation about the major trends and events in the industry
2. Then they speculate on a wide range of important issues that might effect the future
of their organization
3. QUEST director prepares a report summarizing the major issues and implications
4. The reports and scenarios are reviewed by a group of strategist who identify suitable
strategic options to deal with evolving environment

◦ Plans and policies are examined

◦ Forecasting of labour movement

◦ Manpower requirements are assessed

◦ A business plan for human resource is made

◦ Expected manpower requirement is specified
◦ Techniques used:
◦ Managerial Judgement
◦ Ratio Analysis
◦ Trend Analysis
◦ Scatter Plot
◦ Computerized Forecast
◦ Work-Study Techniques
Managerial Judgement
◦ Applied by small as well as large scale organisations.
◦ Involves two types of approaches
◦ Bottom-up approach: line mangers send their departmental requirement of human
resources to top management. Top management forecasts the human resource
requirement for the overall organisation on the basis of proposals of departmental
◦ Top-down approach: top management forecasts the human resource requirement for
the entire organisation and various departments. This information is supplied to
various departmental heads for their review and approval

◦ 'Participative Approach' should be applied for demand forecasting. Under this

approach, top management and departmental heads meet and decide about the future
human resource requirement.
Work-Study Technique
◦ Also known as 'work-load analysis’

◦ Suitable where the estimated work-load is easily measurable

◦ Total production is estimated and activities for a specific future period are

◦ This information is translated into number of man-hours required to produce per

units taking into consideration the capability of the workforce.
The estimated production of an organisation is 3.00.000 units. The standard man-hours required to
produce each unit are 2 hours. The past experiences show that the work ability of each employee in
man-hours is 1500 hours per annum.

◦ Estimated total annual production = 300000 units

◦ Standard man-hours needed to produce each unit = 2 hrs
◦ Estimated man-hours needed to meet estimated annual production (i x ii) = 600000 hrs
◦ Work ability/contribution per employee in terms of man-hour = 1500 units
◦ Estimated no. of workers needed (iii / iv) = 600000/1500 = 400 units

The above example clearly shows that 400 workers are needed for the year. Further, absenteeism
rate, rate of labour turnover, resignations, deaths, machine break-down, strikes, power-failure etc.
should also be taken into consideration while estimating future demand of human resources/
Ratio Trend Analysis
◦ Demand for manpower/human resources is also estimated on the basis of ratio
of production level and number of workers available.
◦ This ratio will be used to estimate demand of human resources.

Estimated production for next year = 1,40,000 units

Estimated no. of workers needed
(on the basis of ratio-trend of 1: 200) will be = 700
Scatter Plot
◦ Is a graphical tool
◦ Provides a convenient view of the process at a single glance
◦ An important tool for visualization
◦ Studies the correlation between the important variables
◦ Correlation is the degree to which two variables simultaneously vary.
An example would be that whenever the cycle time is high, customer
dissatisfaction is also high.
◦ Correlation helps the management come up with the possible levels of these variables so
that accurate budgets can be developed.
Computerized Forecast

◦ Is the determination of future staff needs

◦ by projecting a firm's sales, volume of production, and personnel required to

maintain this volume of output

◦ using computers and software package