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Dr.

Abhilasha Jindal
Asst. Prof.
Chitkara Business School
HRM
IS
DEAD !!
LONG
LIVE
HRM !
The good news is
HRM IS DEAD …..!
…only in the
traditional sense
LONG LIVE HRM….!
…Version 2006..to
Version Infinity.
A GRID MAP

PARADIGM
CHANGING PARADIGMS:

Business Transition Trends


Business Transition Trends
From
Socialistic Society

To
Capitalistic Society
Business Transition Trends …Contd.
From
Profit being residual in the
process of value creation
To
Profit generation to the extent
possible in the process of value
creation
Business Transition Trends …Contd.
From
Seller’s Market
(Cost + Profit = Price)
To
Buyer’s Market
(Customer Determines Price)
Business Transition Trends …Contd.

From
Customer running after seller

To
Seller running after customer
Business Transition Trends …Contd.

From
Loyal Customer

To
Infidel Customer
Business Transition Trends …Contd.

From
Market capitalisation

To
Revenues and cash
Business Transition Trends …Contd.

From
Capital measures
To
Brands, Technology
and Intellectual capital
Business Transition Trends …Contd.

From
Size and solidity

To
Niche and fluidity
Business Transition Trends …Contd.

From
One long range plan

To
Many near term flexi plans
Business Transition Trends …Contd.

From
Ideas and incubation

To
Action and execution
Business Transition Trends …Contd.
From
Focus on needs of Employees

To
Focus on Employees’ performance
The Result…

New Paradigms
Repositioning HR

1. Understanding key business drivers


2. Aligning HR as a strategic business partner
3. Competitive instinct and intelligence
4. Driving transition by managing change
5. Envisioning, enabling and encouraging
creativity and innovation
6. Leading through personal credibility by
value based ‘on time’ delivery of promises
How many of you are
familiar with the following
names?
Desh Prem Azad
Ramakant Achrekar
They are the coaches of
Kapil Dev
Sachin Tendulkar
This is real teamwork. The coach
works behind the scene unknown
to people while their trainees
become known all over the world.
Why Training And Development?
HRM regards T&D as a function concerned with organizational
activity aimed at bettering the job performance of individuals and
groups in organizational settings.

T&D can be described as “ an educational process which involves


the sharpening of skills, concepts, changing of attitude and
gaining more knowledge to enhance the performance of
employees”.

Several Names – learning and development, human capital


development, human resource development
Why Training And Development?
Training and development are powerful
tools to ensure that the ‘best fit’
established between a position and a
person at the time of acquisition is
maintained throughout the period of
organisation – employee relationship
Training

Training is a short term process


utilizing a systematic and
organized procedure by which non
– managerial personnel learn
technical knowledge and skills for
definite process.

It refers to the process of imparting


specific skills they need to perform
their job.
Development
Development is a long term
education process utilizing a
systematic and organized
procedure by which
managerial personnel learn
conceptual and theoretical
knowledge for general
purpose.

Learning opportunities
designed to help employees
to grow. It is not primarily
skills oriented
Importance of Training and
Development

• Helps remove performance deficiencies in employees.


• Greater stability, flexibility and capacity for growth in and
organization
• Accidents, scraps and damages to machinery can be avoided.
• Serves as effective sources of recruitment
• It is an investment in HR with a promise of better returns in
future
• Reduces dissatisfaction, absenteeism, complaints and turnover
of employees.

Need of Training
Individual Needs

• Diagnosis of present problems and future challenges


• Improve individual performance or fix up performance
deficiency
• Improve skills or knowledge or any other problem
• To anticipate future skill-needs and prepare employee to handle
more challenging tasks
• To prepare for possible job transfers

Group Needs

• To face any change in organizational strategy at group levels


• When new products or services are launched
• To avoid scraps and accident rates.
Identification of Training Needs

Individual Training Needs Identification

• Performance Appraisals
• Interviews
• Questionnaires
• Attitude Surveys
• Training Progress Feedback
• Work Sampling
• Rating Scales
Identification of Training Needs

Group Training Needs Identification

• Organizational Goals and objectives


• Personnel/skills Inventories
• Organizational Climate Indices
• Efficiency indices
• MBO/Work Planning systems
• Quality circles
• Customer satisfaction survey
• Analysis of current and anticipated changes
Current Scenario
• What should happen ?

• What is happening ?

• What can I / we do about it ?


Steps In The Training Process

1. Need identification and analysis

2. Setting Training Objectives

3. Designing programs

4. Methodologies to be used

5. Evaluation
Overview of Training
Experienced trainers know that
effective training is structured as a
continuous performance improvement
process that is integrated with other
systems and business strategies. The
key word here is process.
Overview of Training …Contd.
The training process involves:
1. Identification of performance
improvement opportunities and analysis
of what caused the opportunity to exist.
2. Identification of alternative solutions to
the opportunity and selection of the most
beneficial solution.
Overview of Training …Contd.
The training process involves: …Contd.
3. Design and implementation of the
solution and
4. Evaluation of results.

A training program (one of many


possible performance improvement
solutions) would emerge from the
training process.
Training Processes Model
Needs Analysis Phase
Input Process Output

Design Phase
Input Process Output

Triggering Development Phase


Event Input Process Output

Implementation Phase Process


Input Process Output Evaluation
Data
Outcome
Evaluation Evaluation Phase
Data
Input Process Output
Step 1

Need Identification And


Analysis
The Success Triangle
(ASK Principle)
ASK Principle-
Meanings of Terms
Attitude
Learned inclination to behave in a consistent
evaluative manner.
Skill
Expertness or practiced ability or tact.
Knowledge
Familiarity gained by experience or range of
information.
Step 2

Design Programmes
What to do now ?
1. Customer orientation
A. Who may be our customers ?
B. What may we do for our customers ?
C. How do we help our customers ?
D. When should we help our customers ?
E. Where should we help our customers ?
F. Why should we help our customers ?

2. Do TOWS (Threats, Opportunities,


Weaknesses and Strengths) for the
organization and self.
Step 3

Methodologies to be Used
The ABC of Communication
A - Accuracy
All information must be checked and double
checked, Wrong information not only negates
the purpose of the communication but also
casts severe doubt on the credibility of the
sender.
B - Brevity

Time is far too valuable to waste on


unnecessary words. Brevity will encourage
the receiver to read / listen quickly and will
help him / her understand it better.
The ABC of Communication
…Contd.

C - Clarity
Clarity is achieved by using the right
language, that is, the words and
constructions that the receiver will
understand and by carefully structuring the
communication so that the argument follows
a logical sequence which leads the receiver
naturally to the point being made.
KISS RULE

“KEEP IT SHORT AND SIMPLE”


IS THE MOST IMPORTANT RULE
IN ALL REPORT WRITING.
- G.WELLS
(HOW TO COMMUNICATE ?)
Training Methods
1. On – The – Job Oriented Methods
The objective here are centered around the job
itself or more specifically, learning on the job itself
by a variety of methods like:

a. On – the- job training


b. Job rotation
c. Guidance and counseling
d. Brain Storming
e. Syndicate method or working in small groups
Training Methods …Contd.
2. Simulation Methods
Real life situation are simulated for improving
training. The main methods in this category
are:
a. Role – play
b. Case method
c. Management games
d. In – basket exercise
Training Methods …Contd.
3. Knowledge Based Methods
An effort is made to expose participants to
concepts and theories, basic principles and
pure and applied knowledge in any subject
area aimed at creating awareness of the
knowledge of fundamentals. The method in
this category are:
a. Lecture
b. Seminars, Workshops
c. Educational training programs at
academic institutes
Training Methods …Contd.
3. Knowledge Based Methods …Contd.

d. Programmed instructions in which


knowledge is disseminated in book form
to be learnt at the individual’s pace
e. Films and Television
f. Group discussions in combination with
some of the above for assimilation and
integration.
Training Methods …Contd.
4. Experiential Methods
The focus in this category is on achieving a
better understanding of oneself and others
through group processes and dynamics.
Some such methods are:

a. Sensitivity Training or T groups


b. Transactional Analysis
c. Achieving Motivation workshops, etc.
Training Methods …Contd.
It must be realised that each method has some
strengths and weaknesses. Given the nature and
purpose of a training programme, the background of
the participants, the availability and competence of
trainers, the appropriate method has to be chosen to
impart training.

It must be ensured that the particular training method


used should be able to create an impact in mind of
the participants to such a degree that they are able
to transfer the learning to their place of work.
Step 4

Evaluation
CIRO Framework
Context
Training needs identification, environment,
problems
Input
Alternative available resources
Reaction
Immediate or subsequent
CIRO Framework …Contd.
Outcome
Immediate, intermediate, long term
Basis
1. What needs to be changed?
2. What procedures are most likely to
bring about this change?
3. What evidence is there that change has
occurred?
KIRKPATRICK’S Model
Step 1 – Reaction
Step 2 – Learning
Step 3 – Behaviour
Step 4 – Results

Basis
1. How well did the participants like it?
2. What principles, facts and techniques were
learnt?
3. What changes in job behaviour resulted?
4. What were the tangible results?
Evaluation of Training
• Most widely used model of training
evaluation was developed by Kirkpatrick
• Evaluation is carried out at 4 different
levels
Reaction
Learning
Behaviour
Results
Training Evaluation - Level 1

 Document the learners’


immediate reaction to the
training.

Measures -
Questionnaires, Interviews,
Discussions

Reaction
Training Evaluation - Level 2

 Use feedback devices or


pre- and post- tests to
measure what learners
have actually learned.

Measures -
Learning
• Written tests
• Performance tests
• Structured exercises
Reaction
Training Evaluation - Level 3
 Measure the degree to
which learners apply new
skills and knowledge to
Behaviour their jobs. Note
supervisors’ reactions to
learners’ performance
following training.

Learning Measures -
Sales / production targets,
appraisal ratings
Reaction
Training Evaluation - Level 4
 Determine the level of
Results improvement in job
performance and assess
needed maintenance.
Measures -
Behaviour Overall improvement in
organisation and department
performance
• Costs & Profit
Learning • Quality & Productivity
• Accidents
• Morale
Reaction • Turnover
Roles of the Trainer
Training is far more than just standing in
front of a group of learners and conveying
information.
This is the function of doing everything
possible to cause learning to take place. The
secret is to develop skills in using a wide
variety of training tools and in expanding the
roles.
The trainer is a person of many roles, the
most important one being that of a facilitator
of the learning process.
Facilitation is A Composite Role
Facilitating involves utilising all your
abilities and available resources in
order to provide the best access to
the knowledge and skills that the
training is designed to impart.
The Most Critical Roles of the
Trainer are
Subject Expert - Who works closely with other
experts, especially in training – event
preparation.
Counsellor - Who helps learning with the help of
learning processes
Leader / Motivator – Of the learners.
Psychologist – Who deals with many different
kinds of people.
Manager – For self and for the learners.
Human Being – Who is just like the learners.
Flexibility is Important
There are times when the
obvious parts of training, such
as instructing, may be the least
important.
Role of A Trainer
A trainer must ensure that:

1. The programme is effective and efficient


2. The ‘need to know’ as well as ‘want to
know’ aspects are covered appropriately
3. Flexibility is maintained throughout the
programme
4. Urge to know more about the subject and
its application takes place
Closing A Sale
A keen country lad applied for a salesman’s job at a city
department store. In fact, it was the biggest store in the
world – you could get anything there.
The boss asked him, “have you ever been a salesman
before?”
“Yes, I was a salesman in the country side,” said the
lad.
The boss liked the cut of him and said “ You can start
tomorrow and I will come and see you.”
The day was long and arduous for the young man, but
finally 5.00 came around. The boss duly fronted up and
asked, “ How many sales did you make today?”
Closing A Sale …Contd.
“One” said the young salesman.
“Only one ?” blurted the boss. “Most of my staff
makes 20 or 30 sales a day. How much was the sales
worth ??”
“Three hundred thousand, three hundred and thirty
dollars” said the young man.
“How did you manage that ?” asked the flabbergasted
boss.
“Well, “ said the salesman “this man came in and I
sold him a small fish hook, then a medium hook and
finally a really large hook. Then I sold him a small
fishing line, a medium one and a huge big one.
Closing A Sale …Contd.
I asked him where he was going fishing and he said
down the coast. I said he would probably need a boat
and so I took him down to the boat department and
sold him a twenty foot schooner with twin engines.
Then he said his Volkswagen probably wouldn’t be able
to pull it and so I took him to the car department and
sold him the new deluxe cruiser.”
The boss took two steps back and asked in
astonishment, “You sold all that to a guy who came in
for a fish hook”.
“No” answered the salesman, “He came in to buy a box
of Stayfree for his wife and I said to him “Your weekend
is screwed, you may as well go fishing.”
Suggested Future Directions
1. Accept the reality of the situation
2. Identify opportunities
3. Develop the needed competences
4. Utilise talent pool for short / long
term requirements of customers
THANK YOU !