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Single-phase half-bridge inverter

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Operational Details

3-wire DC source

• Consists of 2 choppers, 3-wire DC source


• Transistors switched on and off alternately
• Need to isolate the gate signal for Q1 (upper device)
• Each provides opposite polarity of Vs/2 across the load
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Q1 on, Q2 off, vo = Vs/2

Peak Reverse Voltage of Q2 = Vs


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Q1 off, Q2 on, vo = -Vs/2

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Waveforms with resistive load

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Look at the output voltage

rms value of the output voltage, Vo


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 To
 2
2  Vs
2 2
V
Vo   0 4 dt   2
s

 To 
 
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Fourier Series of the instantaneous output
voltage
ao 
vo     an cos(nt )  bn sin(nt ) 
2 n 1
ao , an  0

1  Vs 
0
Vs
bn    sin( nt )d (t )   sin( nt )d (t ) 
   2 0
2 
2Vs
bn   n  1,3,5,...
n

2Vs
vo   sin(nt )
n 1,3,5,.. n

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rms value of the fundamental component


2Vs
vo   sin nt
n 1,3,5,.. n

1 2Vs
Vo1 
2 
Vo1  0.45Vs

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When the load is highly inductive

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Turn off Q1 at t = To/2
Current falls to 0 via D2, L, Vs/2 lower

+
Vs/2
-

+
Vs/2
-

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Turn off Q2 at t = To
Current falls to 0 via D1, L, Vs/2 upper

+
Vs/2
-

+
Vs/2
-

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Load Current for a highly inductive load

Transistors are only switched on for a quarter-cycle, or 90

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Fourier Series of the output current for an RL
load


vo vo 2Vs
io     sin(nt   n )
Z R  jn L n 1,3,5,... n R  (n L)
2 2

n L
 n  tan (
1
)
R

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Fundamental Output Power
In most cases, the useful power

Po1  Vo1 I o1 cos 1  I o21 R


2
 2Vs 
Po1    R
 2 R  ( L) 
2 2

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DC Supply Current

• If the inverter is lossless, average power absorbed


by the load equals the average power supplied by
the dc source.
T T

 v (t )i (t )dt   v (t )i (t )dt
0
s s
0
o o

• For an inductive load, the current is approximately


sinusoidal and the fundamental component of the
output voltage supplies the power to the load. Also,
the dc supply voltage remains essentially at Vs.

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DC Supply Current (continued)

T T
1
0 is (t )dt  Vs 
0
2Vo1 sin(t ) 2 I o sin(t  1 )dt  I s

Vo1
Is  I o cos(1 )
Vs

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Performance Parameters

• Harmonic factor of the nth harmonic (HFn)

Von
HFn  for n>1
Vo1

Von = rms value of the nth harmonic component


V01 = rms value of the fundamental component

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Performance Parameters (continued)

• Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)


• Measures the “closeness” in shape between a
waveform and its fundamental component

 1
1
THD  (  Von ) 2 2
Vo1 n 2,3,...

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Performance Parameters (continued)

• Distortion Factor (DF)


• Indicates the amount of HD that remains in a
particular waveform after the harmonics have been
subjected to second-order attenuation.
1

1  
 Von  
2 2
DF     2  
Vo1  n  2,3,...  n  
Von
DFn  for n>1
Vo1n 2
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Performance Parameters (continued)

• Lowest order harmonic (LOH)


• The harmonic component whose frequency is
closest to the fundamental, and its amplitude is
greater than or equal to 3% of the amplitude of
the fundamental component.

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Single-phase full-bridge inverter

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Operational Details

• Consists of 4 choppers and a 3-wire DC source


• Q1-Q2 and Q3-Q4 switched on and off alternately
• Need to isolate the gate signal for Q1 and Q3 (upper)
• Each pair provide opposite polarity of Vsacross the load
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Q1-Q2 on, Q3-Q4 off, vo = Vs

+ Vs -

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Q3-Q4 on, Q1-Q2 off, vo = -Vs

- Vs +

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When the load is highly inductive
Turn Q1-Q2 off – Q3-Q4 off

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Turn Q3-Q4 off – Q1-Q2 off

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Load current for a highly inductive load

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MODIFIED McMURRAY HALF-
BRIDGE INVERTER

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About
• Problems in IGBT, GTO or BJT based
inverters.
• Commutation in Thyristor based inverters.
• Need for MODIFIED McMURRAY HALF-
BRIDGE INVERTER

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