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PC-101-G

FTTH Design and Network Basics

Mark Boxer
Applications Engineering Manager, OFS
Jeff Bush
Professional Services Manager, OFS

Page 1
Agenda

• Drivers for FTTx


• Why fiber
• Fiber feeds everything
• Flavors of FTTX
• Nuts and bolts – the components
• Installation techniques
• Network design configurations

Page 2
The world is changing

• In the past 15 years, we’ve seen…


– The Internet
– iPods
– HDTVs
– DVRs
– Smartphones (Blackberry, iPhone, etc)
– Tablet computers
• All of these revolutionary technologies require
more BANDWIDTH (telecommunications capacity)

We must expect and plan for more and faster changes


in the future!

Page 3
Video on all screens - HDTV

Pixel
1080
An image is built on a screen, pixel by pixel, pixels
One HDTV program = 8-12 Mbps

TV
12 Mbps
1920 pixels

1 house = 48 Mbps
bandwidth, just for video,
today…
TV
12 Mbps
TV + DVR
How about tomorrow?
24 Mbps

Page 4
Video Evolution over next 5 – 10 years

2D Video Format Mb/s Native Mb/s (compressed)


per stream H.262 or MPEG- H.264 or
2 MPEG-4
Standard
T 480p 249 7 2
Definition (SD)
o Mature
High Definition
d (HD) 1080i/720p 1,493 16 8
a
Very High
y Growing Fast 1080p 2,986 32 16
Definition (VHD)
Super HD 2160p 14,930 100 50
New Standards
Ultra HD 4320p 59,720 400 200
Source: OFS Estimates from Industry Data
* ITU Recommendation J.601, Transport of Large Scale Digital Imagery (LSDI) applications

Page 5
Video Bandwidth Growth Driving Fiber To The Home (FTTH)
Data Rate to Each Home
10,000
2012 Offers
Fiber: 20 - 1,000 Mbps
1,000
No limit!!*
Top Tier Data Rate (Mb/s)

100
Copper
Speed
10
Limit Digital
1
42% annual growth
0.1 Increasing 4 times
* Fiber limit is
every 4 years >50 Tbps
0.01
Analog Source: Technology
0.001 Modems futures and OFS

Year
0
1980 1990 2000 2010 2020

Text Pictures Video HD SHD 3D

Page 6
Agenda

• Drivers for FTTx


• Why fiber
• Fiber feeds everything
• Flavors of FTTX
• Nuts and bolts – the components
• Installation techniques
• Network design configurations

Page 7
Why Fiber?
Greater bandwidth, longer distance, lowest cost per bit

Copper

2400 Pair
Copper
Cable Bandwidth Distance Cost per Bit
100 Gbps
to 1 KM
Fiber
1 Fiber Cable
>50 Tbps
>5000 KM

Bandwidth Distance Cost per Bit

Page 8
Why fiber?
Lower cost, higher performance
Feature Benefit
High bandwidth High information carrying
• Metallic cable technologies are approaching capacity
their useful limits
Low attenuation Long distances without
repeaters…less expensive
• Copper (telephone) and coaxial cables
(Cable TV) Light weight Easier installations
Small size Unobtrusive
– More expensive, less reliable, less
capacity No metallic No grounding problems
conductors No “crosstalk”

• Wireless systems have significant capacity Passive No power requirements


limitations No circuit protection
needed
Difficult to tap Very secure
• Fiber optic cable is less expensive than
copper, more reliable and has more capacity Inexpensive Widely deployable. Cost
effective

Page 9
Why fiber?
FTTH lower operating expenses (OPEX) versus competing technologies

 Why? Fewer truck rolls


– Remote provisioning though software
– Increased reliability vs copper/coax electronics in
field such DSL/HFC
 Savings estimates vs DSL/Hybrid Fiber-Coax
– FTTH Opex saves $100 to $250 per subscriber vs DSL
or HFC

Page 10
Agenda

• Drivers for FTTx


• Why fiber
• Fiber feeds everything
• Flavors of FTTX
• Nuts and bolts – the components
• Installation techniques
• Network design configurations

Page 11
Wireless Loves Fiber (and vice versa)

Page 12
Flavors of FTTx
Fiber feeds the cell network
 Mobile bandwidth demand, driven by smartphones and
video, is growing rapidly
 Fiber is needed to and up the tower for 4G networks and
beyond
 Fiber has many advantages for cell network operators,
shown below:
Weight
Tower loading/bracing
Bandwidth Grounding
Installation time
Power losses
Space
Cooling requirements

Page 13
13
Flavors of FTTx
Fiber feeds the Telephone and Cable Networks
Telephone: FTTN – Fiber to the Curb/Node
Cable: HFC – Hybrid Fiber Coax
Switch or Node
12 - 24 fibers

Central Office OLT


Twisted Pair or coax
Typical distance range 5 to 100 KM
150-1500 m

•Fiber to the Node, Copper/coax to the home


•Potential 24-100+ Mbps per subscriber (variable based on distance and metal cable quality)
•Asymmetric bandwidth (more downstream than upstream)

Page 14
Flavors of FTTx
Fiber feeds the Power Network
• Fiber is an integral part of the utility communications network
– Substation to substation communications, broad deployment
– Equipment within substations, broad deployment
– FTTH in limited cases
– Smart grid initiatives are changing the nature of power delivery

Nuclear

Renewable

Transmission Distribution

Smart Meter
--:Information Micro Grid
--:Power

Page 15
Agenda

• Drivers for FTTx


• Why fiber
• Fiber feeds everything
• Flavors of FTTX
• Nuts and bolts – the components
• Installation techniques
• Network design configurations

Page 16
FTTH Electronics
A typical FTTH network has an “Optical Line
Terminal” (OLT) or switch at the “Headend”
or “Central Office”

The OLT or switch converts incoming traffic into


Fiber Management laser pulses and sends them down the fiber.

OLT

Unmanaged Switch

Fiber ONU
Encoder & DVD
…And an “Optical Network Terminal” (ONT), media
converter, or gateway in the home. The ONT
converts the signals from light to electrical signals.

The ONT contains ports to distribute signals on the


existing home wiring (or wirelessly).

The ONT may be either inside or outside the home.

Page 17
Typical FTTH Architectures

• PON (Passive Optical Network) PON


– Incorporates a signal divider, such as
an optical power splitter
OLT
– One fiber at the central office feeds
many fibers in the field Optical power
splitter or wavelength filter
– G-PON (Gigabit PON) and GE-PON
(Gigabit Ethernet-PON) are the most
common architectures Point to point
• Point-to-Point (“Active Ethernet”)
– One fiber in the headend = one
fiber in the field Switch

Some equipment will serve both architectures

Page 18
Summary of today’s common FTTH architectures

GPON GE-PON Point to


Point PON
Current Next Current Next (Active
gen gen gen gen Ethernet)
Downstream 2.4 Gbps 10 1.2 Gbps 10 100 -1000 OLT
bandwidth total Gbps total Gbps Mbps per
total total sub Optical power
Upstream 1.2 Gbps 10 1.2 Gbps 10 100 -1000 splitter or wavelength filter
bandwidth total Gbps total Gbps Mbps per
total total sub
Typical 20 km 20 km 20 km 20 20 km Point to point
distance km
Wavelengths 1490 1577 1550 1577 1550
(nm), 1310 1270 1310 1270 1310
Downstream/ Switch
Upstream)

Page 19
l1, l2
WDM PON Networks l3, l4

Provides a dedicated wavelength (light color) per customer


l15, l16
CO or Head End
WDM
Mux/DeMux

l1, 3 -15 WDM Mux


/DeMuxs

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
WDM
Mux/DeMux
WDM 1 fiber per subscriber
Mux/DeMux

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
WDM
l2, 4, -16
Mux/DeMux

Typical 1 Gb/s up/down dedicated to each subscriber


Longer reach than GPON or GE-PON
Emerging technology

Page 20
FTTB – Fiber to the Building (MDUs)

•Fiber to a switch or node with many ports to feed multiple Copper or coax
customers cables
•Uses Cat 5 or higher copper wiring or coax to the unit
•Typical up to 100 Mb/s connection, limited by copper/coax
bandwidth
•Can be either symmetric or asymmetric bandwidth
•Sometimes includes “fiber to the floor”

Typical distance range 5 to 80 KM

Unit
100 m max
Central Office or
Head End in building
Single-mode Fiber
Switch or node

Page 21
Agenda

• Drivers for FTTx


• Why fiber
• Fiber feeds everything
• Flavors of FTTX
• Nuts and bolts – the components
• Installation techniques
• Network design configurations

Page 22
Light as a Communications Method
Used for hundreds of years

Smoke Signals “One if by land, two


if by sea”

Page 23
John Tyndall and William Wheeler

• John Tyndall, 1854 • William Wheeler, 1880


• Demonstrated that light could be • Invented “Light pipes” for home
guided within a liquid “Light Guide” lighting using reflective pipes
• Similar to concept used today for
interior car illumination

http://www.fiber-optics.info/history

Page 24
Optical Fiber
Fastest communications pipe available

Coating
Cladding
Light ray
Core

Light travels in core and is constrained by the cladding

Acrylate coating protects pure silica (glass) cladding

Page 25
125 microns
Fiber Structure

• Core - The center of an optical Coatings


fiber. Contains dopants to change
speed of light.
Cladding
• Cladding - Outer layer of glass to
contain light. Different refractive
vv
vs Core
8-62.5
index. microns

• Coating - Cushions and protects


fibers.

250 microns

Page 26
Two main types of fibers - Single-mode and Multimode
Singlemode fiber – Carries only one mode of light
Multimode fiber – Carries multiple modes of light Index of refraction profiles

8-10 µm

125 µm
Singlemode

core
cladding

50-62.5
µm

Multimode 125 µm

Page 27
The FTTx Network – Macro View
Fiber to the Drop
Cell Site Drop closures cable
Central Office
or terminal
/Headend
High level picture of where things go

Aerial
cable

Underground
Fiber Distribution and cable
Splitter Cabinet Splice
closures

Page 28
Typical Outside Plant Cable Types –
Aerial and Underground
Aerial Self-Supporting (ADSS),
Duct and armored loose tube cables

Ribbon Cables

Blown Fiber Units


Microcables
Drop Cables

Page 29
Outside Plant Fiber Optic Cable Buffer tube

• Most often “loose tube” cable structure Fiber


– Fibers loose in buffer tubes
• Handles stress/strain and temperature Loose buffer
fluctuations and climatic extremes tube structure

– Also available in ribbons


– Fibers and buffers are color coded
• Underground applications
– Direct Buried – typically armored Ribbon fiber and cable structure

– Duct cable
• Aerial applications
– Lashed to a messenger
– Self-supporting (ADSS, All-Dielectric, Self-
Supporting

Page 30
Inside Plant Cables
• Indoor cables are different than outdoor cables
• Most often “tight buffer” cable structure
– Provides additional protection for handling
– Facilitates connectorization
• Multiple types of cable structures
• Riser, plenum, low smoke/zero halogen products
– Designed to meet flame smoke ratings
• Yellow colored jacket indicates single-mode fiber

Page 31
Fiber management devices and closures

• Used to route and connect fibers


• Fiber management devices are
used in the central office or
remote cabinets
• Closures are used in the field to
connect cables together
• Multiple designs available for
each component

Page 32
Connectors
• Fibers use special, precisely
manufactured connectors LC Connector

• Connector color indicates the


polish of the connector

• Polish type indicates amount


of back reflection
• Critical parameter to SC Connector
ensure proper
transmission

Blue = “Ultra” polish MPO Connector


Green = “Angle” polish (12 fiber ribbon
connector)

Page 33
Splitters
• Used with Passive Optical Network
(PON) systems
• Used to split one fiber into multiple
fibers Splitters
– Decreases power
– Splits bandwidth
• Split ratios are factors of 2
– 1x2, 1x4, 1x8, 1x16, 1x32, 1x64,
1x32
• Different deployment methods
– Centralized splits
– Distributed splits
– Cascaded splits Splitter Distribution Cabinets

Page 34
MDU deployments

• MDU installations are different


than single-family home
installations

• Most MDU installations require


tight bends and bend insensitive
fibers

• Manufacturers have developed


fibers and distribution products
specifically for MDU applications

Page 35
Agenda

• Drivers for FTTx


• Why fiber
• Fiber feeds everything
• Flavors of FTTX
• Nuts and bolts – the components
• Installation techniques
• Network design configurations

Page 36
OSP Cable Placement Options
• Aerial
• Fast, minimal
restoration time
• Typical choice for
overbuilding existing
aerial plant

• Below Grade
• Required by
regulations for most
Greenfield installations
• Aesthetically pleasing!

Page 37
OSP Cable Placement Options

Below Grade
• Direct Buried
• In conduit
• In gas Lines
• In sewers

Page 38
OSP Buried Considerations

• Existing neighborhood, or a new


development?
• Must call your local “One Call” to
locate existing utilities.
• Expose these utilities wherever
you will be crossing them.
• A vacuum excavator is normally
used to expose utilities. This is
called “soft” excavation.

Source: FTTH Council

Page 39
Overbuilding with Buried Plant
Directional Drilling

• Bores under driveways, streets, landscape,


around existing utilities
• Least restoration of ground of buried solutions
• Ensures good aesthetics
• Higher skilled operation than other methods
• More expensive equipment
• Typically surface launched
• Pilot bore is followed by a pullback of the cable

Source: FTTH Council

Page 40
Overbuilding with Buried Plant
Vibratory Plow
• Lower cost option where no surface obstacles exist
• Little damage to surface, normally just leaves a
narrow slot
• Typically requires minimal restoration to the
ground after installation
• Conduit/cable is installed behind the plow blade
• Less operator expertise needed
• Normally requires only one operator
Source: FTTH Council

Page 41
Greenfield with Buried Plant
Open cut trenching

• Often lowest cost method


• Easiest to operate method, lower
skilled operator
• Requires the most restoration of the
ground of the 3 methods
• In new developments can lay
cable/conduit in common utilities
trench
Source: FTTH Council

Page 42
Splicing

• Fusion

– Most common type of splice


– Fibers joined together and melted at
approximately 1600 degrees C
Illustration of electrodes used
to form fusion splicing arc
• Mechanical

– Common overseas
– Less common in US FTTH installations
Splice sleeve to cover completed splice

Page 43
Optical Loss Budget

Designers must ensure enough light


can reach the home in both directions.
Fiber Management

OLT

Unmanaged Switch

Component Typical loss values


Encoder & DVD
@ 1550 nm
Fiber 0.25-0.30 dB/km
Splices 0.05 dB
Connectors 0.25 dB
Splitters (1x32) 17-18 dB

Page 44
Agenda

• Drivers for FTTx


• Why fiber
• Fiber feeds everything
• Flavors of FTTX
• Nuts and bolts – the components
• Installation techniques
• Network design configurations

Page 45
PON Design Considerations
CapEx/OpEx
Incremental Cost per HH Passed Relative to Take Rate

• Cost per Household $180

$160

• Cost per Subscriber $140

$120

• Cost to Connect

Incremental Cost
$100

$80

Scalability $60

$40

• Ease of in-network additions $20

$0 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100%

• Ease of network extensions


Hubbed Split $75 $81 $82 $88 $94 $95 $101 $101 $108 $114 $114 $121 $127 $127 $133 $134 $140 $146 $147 $153
Distributed Split $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99

Build ability
• Ability to construction within required timelines
• Ability to construction without damaging customer
relations

Page 46
Approximate cost proportions
 Fiber Materials are only ~8% of cost per home*
 Fiber Materials must last decades and support multiple generations of
electronics

FTTH Installed cost per Home* Electronics: OLT and ONT


8% generations

43% Electronics: installation labor 4


32% generations

Construction, Pathways, Design

17% ODN: Optical Fiber, Cable,


Splitters, Connections

* 35% take rate, costs and proportions may vary from this typical example
Proper Selection and Design of the Fiber Materials (the 8%) can
help lower the cost of the other 92%

Page 47
Network Design Options

Home Run or “Active Ethernet”/”Point to Point Design”

Central
Office
SFU
• Fibers from the OLT/switch all OLT or
switch
the way to the home
SFU
• For PON, splitters placed in a
central office
• Minimizes OLT port usage
SFU

Splitter for PON systems

Page 48
PON Design Options

Centralized Design

Central
Office SFU
• Splitters placed in a
Cabinet
cabinet or hub OLT
F1 Fiber SFU
• Reduces OLT port usage
Splitter
• Requires investment in
cabinet SFU

Page 49
PON Design Options

Distributed Design

• Splitters placed in splice cases


• Minimizes fiber sizes and splicing
• Requires dedicated OLT ports
Central
Office

OLT Splitter Splitter


F1 Fiber F1 Fiber F1 Fiber

Splice Splice
Case Case

SFU SFU SFU SFU

Page 50
PON Design Options

Cascaded Design

• Multiple splits between OLT and ONT


Central
• Balance between fiber and OLT port usage
Office • Increased loss

OLT Splitter Splitter


F1 Fiber F1.5 Fiber

Splice Case Splice Case


or Cabinet or Cabinet

SFU SFU

Page 51
PON Design Examples
Typical Layout – Centralized Split
Drop Pedestal
Serving Area
Households
Roadway

Drop Pedestals
250 HHs
Roadway

Splitter
Cabinet

288 Fiber 288 Fiber 288 Fiber 288 Fiber 288 Fiber
F2,1-288 F2,1-280 F2,1-272 F2,1-264 F2,1-256
Dead,281-288 Dead,273-288 Dead,265-288 Dead,257-288
Feeder
Fiber

Page 52
PON Design Examples
Typical Layout – Distributed Split
Splitter
Serving Area
Drop Pedestal
Serving Area
Households
Roadway

Drop Pedestals
250 HHs
Roadway

Feeder
Pick-up
Point
36 Fiber 36 Fiber 36 Fiber 1x32 Splitter 36 Fiber 36 Fiber
F1,1-3 (spare) F1,1-3 (spare) F1,1-3 (spare) & Drop Pedestal F1,1-3 (spare) F1,1-3 (spare)
F1,4-12 F1,4-12 F1,4-12 IN: F1,12 F1,4-11 F1,4-11
Feeder Dead,13-36 F2,1-8 F2,1-16 OUT: F2,1-32 Dead,12-24 Dead,12-36
Fiber Dead,21-36 Dead,29-36 F2,25-32
Dead,33-36

Page 53
PON Design Considerations

1. OLT Cost per Port


– As the cost per port drops, designs that require a higher utilization of ports but less
fiber and splicing become more cost effective
2. Take Rates
– As take rates increase, the impact of dedicating OLT ports to a greater number of
splitters is reduced
3. Assessing Cost Impacts
– When conducting a cost analysis to determine the impact of different design
approaches, it is helpful to focus only on cost that vary between the designs
• Eliminate costs that are common to the designs being assessed

4. Cost Assessment Focus


– Cost effectiveness can be measured in multiple ways:
• Cost per household/living unit
• Cost per subscriber

Page 54
PON Design Considerations
Example Cost Assessment
Incremental Cost per HH Passed Relative to Take Rate
$180

$160

$140

$120
Incremental Cost

$100

$80

$60

$40

$20

$0 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100%
Hubbed Split $75 $81 $82 $88 $94 $95 $101 $101 $108 $114 $114 $121 $127 $127 $133 $134 $140 $146 $147 $153
Distributed Split $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99 $99

Page 55
PON Design Considerations
Example Cost Assessment
Incremental Cost per Subscriber Relative to Take Rate
$2,500

$2,000
Incremental Cost

$1,500

$1,000

$500

$0 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100%
Hubbed Split $1,502 $813 $545 $440 $377 $316 $288 $254 $239 $228 $208 $201 $195 $182 $178 $167 $165 $163 $155 $153
Distributed Split $1,980 $990 $660 $495 $396 $330 $283 $247 $220 $198 $180 $165 $152 $141 $132 $124 $116 $110 $104 $99

Page 56
MDU Design Approaches

1. MDU ONT
– ONT placed at existing demarcation point
– Utilize existing wiring (coax, cat 3/5) to the living units

2. Single Family ONT


– Drop placed to each living unit
– ONT mounted within the living unit

3. Desktop ONT
– Drop placed within living units (along molding, etc.)

Page 57
MDU Design Pros and Cons

1. MDU ONT
– Avoids challenges and costs associated with retrofitting buildings
– Dependent on type and condition of existing wiring

2. Single Family ONT


– Eliminates usage of existing wiring (possibly substandard)
– Cost and labor intensive

3. Desktop ONT
– Minimal space requirements
– Typically requires drop to be routed through the living units (aesthetics)

Page 58
Summary

• Video, internet, and new applications are driving bandwidth increases


that require fiber
• Fiber is the best method for providing low cost, high bandwidth
services
– Lowest cost/bit
– Lowest OPEX
– More reliable than metallic technologies
– Lower attenuation, weight
• Fiber architectures include various versions of PON and Point to Point
• Multiple ways of deploying FTTH
– Different design options for outside plant can significant impact costs and network
functionality

Page 59