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Preparing and

Implementing Research
Research Instrument

 A tool used to gather data on specific topic of interest

 It must be valid and reliable
- An instrument is valid when it directly answers or
addresses your research questions
- It is reliable when it provides consistent and stable
data over a period of time
Types of Instrument

 Survey
 A survey contains planned questions which are
used to measure attitudes, perceptions, and
 It contains responses directly related to each
specific research question, It can either be in the
form of an interview or a questionnaire.
Three (3) Types of question used in
conducting a SURVEY:

1. Recall - type of question asks for specific information

such as years of service, age, and address
2. Recognition – type of question that asks for a
response to a specific question where options are
given as in the case of multiple choice, dichotomous
(yes/No), and rating scale format
3. Open-ended – type pf question that elicits brief
explanations or impressions from the respondent
Types of Instrument

• An instrument that allows the researcher to qualitatively gather data.
Responses during interview are usually open-ended.
1. Pre-interview Stage – interview guide is prepared and respondents are identified
and contacted

2. Warm-up Stage – initial part of interview when questions are asked to make the
respondents more at ease

3. Main Interview Stage – questions directly related to the research are asked
4. Closing Stage – questions are asked to wind down the interview and respondents
are acknowledged and thanked
Types of Instrument

 Questionnaire
• Lists written questions to get specific information
• more quantifiable when compared to interview
• Uses responses which are dichotomous and identification
type of test
• In some cases, open-ended questions are incorporated in the
Parts of a Questionnaire:

1. Personal Information Section – includes name (optional), age, date of birth,

address, educational background and other personal information about the
respondents (only personal information related to the study should be asked)
2. Basic Questions Section – serves two purposes; first, is to establish that the
person you are asking is the right person for the study and second, (which is
only applicable to interview) is to establish rapport with the interviewees
3. Main Questions Section – contains questions that are directly related to
your research (the greater the number of questions, the greater the possibility
of more conclusive results)
4. Open-ended Question Section – asks for a brief explanation or response to
an open-ended question
Types of Instrument

 Observation
• Allows the description of the behavior in a naturalistic or
laboratory setting
• Usually, this instrument is used to cross-validate the results
of other instruments
• Most useful when the answers to research questions require
description of behavior and setting when respondents cannot
literally answer interview questions and questionnaire for
some valid reasons such as inability to speak and write (ex.
Types of Observation:

 Participant and Non-participant Observation

 Non-participant – type of observation that allows the researcher to observe
the subjects without interacting with them (subjects do not know that they
are being observed).
 Participant Observation – allows the researcher to interacxt actively with the
subjects (researchers immerse themselves in a group or community for a
long period of time).
 Structure and Unstructured Observation
 Structured Observation – occurs when the researcher has alist of behaviors
that he wants to observe
 Unstructured Observation – occurs when the researcher allows behaviors to
emerge. These behaviors are then documented through an in-depth
narrative account.
Covert and Overt Observation

 Covert Observation – occurs when the subjects are

not aware that they are being observed
 Overt Observation – occurs when the subjects are
aware that they are being observed.
Types of Instrument

 Experiment
• is a procedure undertaken scientifically and systematically to make a discovery and to
test hypothesis.
• It can be performed in a laboratory or in natural setting following the steps below:
1. Make observation.
2. Develop the hypothesis.
3. Design the experiment.
4. Conduct the experiment. Replicate the experiment to ensure the reliability of the
5. Analyze the results.
6. Decide on whether to accept or reject the hypothesis based on the results.
Guidelines in doing the
instruments will be on
the next session…..
Guidelines in Preparing a

1. Introduce a questionnaire through a cover letter. The cover letter

should explain the purpose and relevance of the study, the length of
time in completing the questionnaire, how the data will be processed,
your contact details, and expected date and time in completing the
2. Keep the questionnaire as short as possible by focusing only on the
essential questions.
3. Ensure confidentiality of information.
4. Pilot the questionnaire to ensure that you have not missed any
important question.
5. Use a follow-up reminder.
6. Give respondents sufficient time to answer the questionnaire.
7. Make all directions and questions clear and unequivocal; do not use words
with double meanings or complex questions.
8. Ensure that your grammar is correct.
9. Use questions that will elicit objective responses as much as possible.
10. Make the questionnaire as brief as possible without sacrificing the content.
11. Arrange and categorize the questions logically (based on research questions).
12. Relate all questions to your research topic and make sure the responses drawn
out are sufficient for your analysis.
13. In relation to the previous guideline, try to make as many questions as
possible without being redundant.
14. Avoid embarrassing, unnecessary questions.
15. Explain and illustrate difficult questions.
16. State all questions affirmatively.
17. Make the respondents anonymous, if necessary,
18. Avoid biased and leading questions.
Guidelines in Conducting an

1. Develop an observation guide or checklist which identifies the

phenomenon you want to understand.
2. Decide on the type of observation that you will use.
3. Know your limitations as an observer.
4. Use a recording device when appropriate.
5. Always bring paper and pen with you to record other details which
cannot be recorded by a video or audio recorder.
6. Never attempt to influence the behavior of your subjects.
7. Always observe ethics when implementing an observation instrument.
Guidelines in Conducting an
1. Always coordinate with a laboratory technician or supervisor when doing an
2. Make yourself present and accessible during experiment.
3. Maintain a relaxed and professional atmosphere.
4. Clean the experiment venue.
5. Never coerce any participants in your experiment.
6. If you need participants in your experiment, let them fill out an informed
consent form (ICF) beforehand. It is a document that the participant
voluntarily and willingly participated in the experiment.
7. Ensure the safety of everyone involved at all times.
8. Ensure the anonymity of participants.
9. Ensure the confidentiality of all gathered data.