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BIODIESEL

SUBMITTED BY:
J.SAI MOHAN
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
PRAGATI ENGINEERING COLLEGE
CONTENTS
 Introduction
 Biodiesel

 Production techniques

 Transesterification process

 Characteristics of biodiesel

 Biodiesel CO2 cycle

 Applications

 Advantages and disadvantages

 conclusion
INTRODUCTION
 The world is presently confronted with the twin crises of
fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation.

 Biodiesel is considered to be an alternative fuel to


petroleum-based fuel resulting in numerous environmental,
economic, and social benefits.

 These alternative energy resources are highly


environment-friendly but need to be evaluated on case-to-
case basis for their advantages, disadvantages and specific
applications.
What is biodiesel ??

 It is a renewable and natural domestic


fuel extracted from animal fats or
vegetable oils mostly from soya bean,
rapeseed, jatropha, palm oil etc.

 Biodiesel is a general name given for


methyl esters obtained from organic
feedstock's.
FEED STOCK FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

 All the raw materials for biodiesel are natural and renewable
making it nontoxic and biodegradable.
PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES:
 Conventionally, biodiesel is produced either in single-
stage or double-stage batch process or by continuous
flow-type transesterification process.

 A number of methods are currently available and have


been adopted for the production of biodiesel fuel. There
are four primary ways to produce biodiesel

1. Direct use and blending of raw oils.

2. Micro-emulsions.

3. Thermal cracking.

4. Transesterification.
 Direct Use – simplest method, 80% of petroleum heat
content, ready available feed stock, viscosity too high,
reactivity of unsaturated hydrocarbons.
 Microemulsions – Utilizes alcohol solvents to reduce
viscosity, causes carbon and lacquer deposits on engine
parts
 Thermal cracking – Yields both biodiesel and gasoline,
biodiesel produced similar to petroleum, negates
emissions benefits
 Transesterification – can be used as a continuous
process, more easily meets biodiesel fuel standards,
expensive alcohol catalyst
TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS:
 Vegetable oils can be chemically reacted with an alcohol
(methanol or ethanol is the usual choice) in the presence of
catalyst to produce chemical compounds known as esters.

 Biodiesel is the name given to these esters when they are


proposed for use as fuel.
NaoH
 Vegetable oil + methanol biodiesel + glycerol

 This transesterification process can also be carried out in


presence of acid catalyst. The only problem with acid catalysed
process is that it is very slow.

 Glycerol obtained as by product is used pharmaceutical


industry.
PROCESS FLOW:
GLOBAL PRODUCTION AND
CONSUMPTION:
CHARACTERISTICS OF BIODIESEL:
BIODIESEL CO2 CYCLE

 Biodiesel is considered as ‘carbon neutral’ because all the co2


released had been sequestered out.
APPLICATIONS:
 On-road & Off-road Vehicles

 Marine Vessels

 Stationary Power Generation

 Fuel Additive

 Lubricity Agent/Additive

 Solvents

 Boiler Fuel

 Agriculture Adjuvants

 Hybrid Vehicles
Biodiesel-A Boon for Mankind

 The advantage of biodiesel as diesel fuel are its portability,


ready availability, renewability, higher combustion
efficiency, lower sulphur and aromatic content, higher
cetane number and higher biodegradability.

 Biodiesel is the only alternative fuel that runs in any


conventional, unmodified diesel engine.

 Needs no change in refueling infrastructures and spare


part inventories. Catalyst used for production i.e. NaOH or
KOH is very cheap.
DISADVANTAGES:
 Some of the disadvantages of Biodiesel are:

1.Quality of Biodiesel depends on the blend thus quality can be

tampered.

2. There may be problems of winter compatibility as pour point is high.

3. Fuel with higher blends of Biodiesel causes damage to rubber

components in the conventional diesel engine.

4. Main disadvantage of Biodiesel is high cost, which is creating main

hurdle in its commercialization. Price of Biodiesel is 1.5 to 2 times higher

than conventional diesel depending on type of feedstock and scale of

operation.
CONCLUSION:
 Bio-diesel is an attested and proven low emission fuel, which is
accepted world over by engine manufacturers, is safe to handle
and require no separate infrastructure for its distribution and
marketing.
 Biodiesel is a viable alternative to petroleum diesel and has
successfully introduced in several countries in the world.
 Price of Biodiesel is higher than that of conventional diesel. This
is the potential challenge to Biodiesel.
 From this point view, Biodiesel can be used most effectively as a
supplement to other energy forms, not as a primary source.
 By bringing lot of wasteland under cultivation India can become
independent for energy.