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Part 7 Global warming─Are humans responsible?

Insolation and
Temperature

© Oxford University Press 2009 Quit


Part 7 Global warming─Are humans responsible?

What is the major factor affecting air


Monthly mean temperatures
temperature?

What is the relationship


between location and
annual mean
temperature of the
Insolation.
following three places?

What makes the air


temperature vary among
latitudes and at different
times of a year?

© Oxford University Press 2009 Quit


Part 7 Global warming─Are humans responsible?

What is insolation? The sun is


constantly
Space releasing energy
Solar in all directions.
radiation
In order to have a better
This energy is
understanding of the issue of as solar
known
global warming, we have to
radiation.
know more about insolation.

The atmosphere Solar radiation that is


received in the
Insolation atmosphere or on the
earth’s surface is
known as insolation.
Earth’s surface
© Oxford University Press 2009 Quit
Part 7 Global warming─Are humans responsible?

What is insolation?
Is insolation evenly distributed on the earth?
-
Less insolation

More insolation +

-
Average annual insolation over the earth’s surface
The
In distribution
general, of insolation
insolation receivedon the earth’s/ surface
( declines increases )
with increasing
is ( even latitude.
/ uneven ).
© Oxford University Press 2009 Quit
Part 7 Global warming─Are humans responsible?

What is insolation?
Is insolation evenly distributed on the earth?
Why does
insolation vary
with latitudes?

Average annual insolation over the earth’s surface


The areas
Which around
areas _______
receive N and value
the highest S receive the highest
of insolation?
value of insolation.
© Oxford University Press 2009 Quit
Part 7 Global warming─Are humans responsible?

What is insolation?
What factors affect insolation received on
the earth’s surface?
Factors affecting insolation
received on the earth’s surface

Angle of the Duration of The


sun daylight atmosphere

Time of a
Latitude Season
day

© Oxford University Press 2009 Quit


Part 7 Global warming─Are humans responsible?

In Part B, we will discuss the


relationship between insolation
and air temperature.

© Oxford University Press 2009 Quit


Part 7 Global warming─Are humans responsible?

© Oxford University Press 2009 Quit


Part 7 Global warming─Are humans responsible?

1 Angle of the sun


The angle of the sun refers
to the angle at which
sunlight strikes the earth’s
surface.
When the sun is directly Overhead sun
overhead, or when the angle
of the sun is 90°, it is known
as the overhead sun.

Area A Area B
Angle of the
How sun 90° angle
does the / Rightof
angle < 90° / Acute angle
the
Area to warm upsun affect the
Smaller Larger
intensity of insolation?
Intensity of
High / More intense Low / Less intense
insolation
© Oxford University Press 2009 Quit
Part 7 Global warming─Are humans responsible?

1 Angle of the sun


A Latitude

In low-latitude regions:
The angle of sun is
( smaller / larger ).
The insolation concentrates
on a ( smaller / larger )
area.
Therefore, the insolation is
( weaker / stronger ).
(Credit: NASA)

© Oxford University Press 2009 Quit


Part 7 Global warming─Are humans responsible?

1 Angle of the sun


A Latitude

In high-latitude regions:
The angle of sun is
( smaller / larger ).
The insolation concentrates
on a ( smaller / larger )
area.
Therefore, the insolation is
( weaker / stronger ).
(Credit: NASA)

© Oxford University Press 2009 Quit


Part 7 Global warming─Are humans responsible?

1 Angle of the sun


How is the amount of
B Time of a day insolation received in this
site different in winter?
The angle of sun
The sun at noon
( decreases /
is called the
increases /
midday sun
reaches maximum )

The
The amount
angle of sunof The angle of sun
insolation received
( decreases / ( decreases /
increases
will / in
be lower increases /
reacheswinter.
maximum ) reaches maximum )

The amount of insolation received in a mid-latitude site in the


Northern Hemisphere around the spring equinox
© Oxford University Press 2009 Quit
Part 7 Global warming─Are humans responsible?

1 Angle of the sun


C Season What is the
relationship
In spring
summer
autumnal
winter
between solstice,
equinox,
solstice,
equinox,
the the
the
the overhead
overhead
seasons sunin sun
is is
located
Hong atKong
_______
the
_________.NS
Equator.
which
_________.
It
Hong
is the
Equatorisand
Kong
time
close
Hong
receives
that
to
Kong
(Honginsolation?
more Kong.
receives
Kong/ lessreceives
It is
less
) the
time( that
the
insolation
leastHong
in/ spring
autumn
largest
Kong )
receives
amount
than in winter.
summer.
of
the
insolation.
( least /
largest ) amount of
insolation.

Please click above for animation

© Oxford University Press 2009 Quit


Part 7 Global warming─Are humans responsible?

2 Duration of daylight Is the case in


The duration
longer theofduration
daylight of
in daylight,
equatorialthe
regions
( less
polar is/ almost
areas more )
12
insolation
hours daily
received.
throughout a year. different?

© Oxford University Press 2009 Quit


Part 7 Global warming─Are humans responsible?

2 Duration of daylight
While in winter,
In polar regions, there is no
When does the North
daylight can last for 24 Pole receive
the largest amount of sunlight at all.
insolation?
hours in summer.

© Oxford University Press 2009 Quit


Part 7 Global warming─Are humans responsible?

3 The atmosphere
The dust
Only aboutparticles,
58 unitsgas molecules
of solar andreaches
radiation clouds in
thethe
earth’s
atmosphere are able to reflect, absorb or scatter solar
surface.
radiation. How does the
atmosphere affect
the amount of solar
radiation reaching
the earth’s surface?

© Oxford University Press 2009 Quit


Part 7 Global warming─Are humans responsible?

3 The atmosphere
Why does the maximum insolation
received occur at around N
and S but not at the Equator?

Maximum
Maximum
insolation
insolation
received
received

Maximum
insolation
received

© Oxford University Press 2009 Quit


Part 7 Global warming─Are humans responsible?

The climate is drier and there


3 The atmosphere is less cloud cover at around
N and S. The earth’s
Space surface receives more
insolation, so the amount of
insolation is greatest here.

Insolation is
reflected by
The atmosphere clouds
Less Less
Dense cloud cover
cloud cloud
cover cover
The amount of cloud cover in the equatorial
regions is high. Much of the solar radiation is
reflected by clouds. This may reduce the amount
of insolation reaching the earth’s surface.
S 0° N
© Oxford University Press 2009 Quit