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 Ingestion- brining food into the mouth (eating)
 Propulsion- moving food through the GI tract,
peristalsis (contractions of smooth muscle in GI tract)
helps to move the food along.
 Mechanical digestion- physical change of the food
particles from large to small, this helps to increase
the surface area to make chemical digestion more
effective. Actions include chewing, churning of food in
stomach, and mixing food with digestive juices.
 Chemical digestion- chemical change of the food
particles, bonds are broken to change a large molecule
into a smaller one so absorption can happen more
effectively. This involves the use of enzymes,
hydrochloric acid, and other digestive juices.
 Absorption-
transport of digested
food molecules from
the GI into the blood
and lymphatic vessels
 Defecation-
elimination of feces
 Organs of the digestive system are divided into 2
main group : the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract)
and accessory structures .
 GI tract is a continuous tube extending through
the ventral cavity from the mouth to the anus – it
consists of the mouth , oral cavity , oropharynx ,
esophagus , stomach , small intestine , large
intestine , rectum , and anus .
 Accessory structures include the teeth, tongue
(in oral cavity) , salivary glands , liver ,
gallbladder , and pancreas .
 Peristalsis – wavelike movement
that occurs from the oropharynx
to the rectum , allowing GI tract
to push food particles toward the
anus .
 Mixing—mixing motion in the
oral cavity and stomach that
allows the GI tract to repeatedly
break down food into smaller
particles , using mechanical
digestion .
 Segmentation – regions of the
small intestine contracting and
relaxing independently , allowing
the small intestine to digestive
and absorb more efficiently
 Mouth
 mechanical digestion
 teeth
 breaking up food
 chemical digestion
 saliva
 amylase
 enzyme digests starch
 mucin
 slippery protein (mucus)
 protects soft lining of digestive system
 lubricates food for easier swallowing
 buffers
 neutralizes acid to prevent tooth decay
 anti-bacterial chemicals
 kill bacteria that enter mouth with food

 composed of skeletal muscle, it repositions food

during chewing and shapes it into a bolus. The
tongue contains taste buds and also helps to
shape sounds when one is speaking. The tongue
is attached to the floor of the mouth by the
lingual frenulum. The tongue also contains
lingual tonsils.
 The back of the throat.
 Larynx- passage for air,
closes when we swallow.
 Is approximately 15cm
 Groups of specialized
secretory cells.
 Found in the lining of
the alimentary canal or
accessory organs.
 Approximately 20 cm long.
 Functions include:
1. Secrete mucus

2. Moves food from the throat to

the stomach using muscle
movement called peristalsis
 If acid from the stomach
gets in here that’s heartburn.
• J-shaped muscular bag that
stores the food you eat,
breaks it down into tiny
• Mixes food with
Digestive Juices that
contain enzymes to
break down Proteins and
• Acid (HCl) in the stomach
Kills Bacteria.
• Food found in the stomach is
called Chyme.
Cardiac region sphincter, which is a thin ring of muscle that helps to
prevent stomach contents from going back up into the

Fundus plays an important role, because it stores both

undigested food and gases that are released during the
process of chemical digestion. Food may sit in
the fundus of the stomach for a while before being
mixed with the chyme.


Pyloric are to prevent intestinal contents from reentering

the stomach when the small intestine contracts and to
limit the passage of large food particles or undigested
material into the intestine.
 Small intestines are
roughly 7 meters long
 Lining of intestine walls
has finger-like projections
called villi, to increase
surface area.
 The villi are covered in
microvilli which further
increases surface area for
 Nutrients from the food pass into the
bloodstream through the small intestine walls.

 Absorbs:
 80% ingested water
 Vitamins
 Minerals
 Carbohydrates
 Proteins
 Lipids

• Secretes digestive enzymes

duodenum is the first and shortest segment of the small intestine. It
receives partially digested food (known as chyme) from
the stomach and plays a vital role in the chemical
digestion of chyme in preparation for absorption in the
small intestine
Jejunum is the middle segment of the small intestine found
between the duodenum and the ileum. Most of the
nutrients present in food are absorbed by the
jejunum before being passed on to the ileum for further
ileum is to absorb vitamin B12, bile salts, and whatever products
of digestion were not absorbed by the jejunum. The wall
itself is made up of folds, each of which has many tiny
finger-like projections known as villi on its surface.
 About 1.5 meters long
 Accepts what small intestines
don’t absorb
 Rectum (short term storage
which holds feces before it is
 Functions
 Bacterial digestion
 Ferment carbohydrates
– Absorbs more water
– Concentrate wastes
Transverse colon Moving the waste material forward to the
rectum using peristalsis and haustral
churning. Absorbing water and electrolytes.

Ascending colon carries feces from the cecum superiorly along

the right side of our abdominal cavity to
the transverse colon. In the ascending
colon, bacteria digest the transitory fecal
matter in order to release vitamins.

Descending colon in the digestive system is to store the

remains of digested food that will be emptied
into the rectum.

Sigmoid colon is to store fecal wastes until they are ready to

leave the body.
 Not part of the path of food, but play a critical
 Include: Liver, gall bladder, and pancreas
Gall bladder
 Pouch structure located
near the liver which
concentrates and stores
 Bile duct – a long tube
that carries BILE. The top
half of the common bile
duct is associated with the
liver, while the bottom half
of the common bile duct is
associated with the
pancreas, through which it
passes on its way to the

 Bile emulsifies lipids (physically breaks apart

 Bile is a bitter, greenish-yellow alkaline fluid,
stored in the gallbladder between meals and
upon eating is discharged into the duodenum
where it aids the process of digestion.

 An organ which secretes

both digestive enzymes
(exocrine) and hormones

 Pancreatic juice digests all

major nutrient types.

 Nearly all digestion occurs

in the small intestine & all
digestion is completed in
the SI.
 Digestive enzymes
 digest proteins
 trypsin, chymotrypsin
 digest starch
 amylase
 Buffers
 neutralizes
acid from

 Directly
affects digestion
by producing bile
 Bile helps digest fat
• filters out toxins and waste
including drugs and alcohol
and poisons.