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INTRODUCTION

 QUANTUM - In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum


amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.
The fundamental notion that a physical property may be "quantized" is
referred to as "the hypothesis of quantization".This means that the
magnitude of the physical property can take on only discrete values
consisting of integer multiples of one quantum.
For example, a photon is a single quantum of light (or of any other form
of electromagnetic radiation).

 QUANTUM COMPUTING - Quantum computers aren't limited to two


states; they encode information as quantum bits, or qubits, which can
exist in superposition. Qubits represent atoms, ions, photons or electrons
and their respective control devices that are working together to act
as computer memory and a processor. Because a quantum computer can
contain these multiple states simultaneously, it has the potential to be
millions of times more powerful than today's most powerful
supercomputers.
technology based on the principles of quantum theory, which explains the
nature and behavior of energy and matter on the quantum (atomic and
subatomic) level.
Development of a quantum computer, if practical, would mark a leap forward
in computing capability far greater than that from the abacus to a modern
day supercomputer, with performance gains in the billion-fold realm and
beyond. The quantum computer, following the laws of quantum physics, would
gain enormous processing power through the ability to be in multiple states,
and to perform tasks using all possible permutations simultaneously. Current
centers of research in quantum computing include MIT, IBM, Oxford University,
and the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

WHO INVENTED QUANTUM COMPUTING AND WHEN?


The field of quantum computing was initiated by the work of Paul
Benioff study and Yuri Manin in 1980, Richard Feynman in 1982 study, and David
Deutsch in 1985. Source: Quantum computing at Wikipedia. Around 1960-
1973 the idea was beginning to form, but the field really started spreading in
the 1980s.
The Father of Quantum Computing. David Deutsch, Oxford University
theoretical physicist, is credited with being the father of quantum computing.
How Do Quantum Computers Work?
Quantum computers perform calculations based on the probability of an object's state
before it is measured - instead of just 1s or 0s - which means they have the potential to
process exponentially more data compared to classical computers.
Classical computers carry out logical operations using the definite position of a physical
state. These are usually binary, meaning its operations are based on one of two
positions. A single state - such as on or off, up or down, 1 or 0 - is called a bit.

In quantum computing, operations instead use the quantum state of an object to


produce what's known as a qubit. These states are the undefined properties of an object
before they've been detected, such as the spin of an electron or the polarisation of a
photon.
Rather than having a clear position, unmeasured quantum states occur in a mixed ‘
superposition', not unlike a coin spinning through the air before it lands in your hand.
These superpositions can be entangled with those of other objects, meaning their final
outcomes will be mathematically related even if we don't know yet what they are.
The complex mathematics behind these unsettled states of entangled 'spinning coins'
can be plugged into special mathematical algorithms to make short work of problems
that would take a classical computer a long time to work out... if they could ever
calculate them at all.
Such algorithms would be useful in solving complex problems, producing hard-to-break
security codes, or predicting multiple particle interactions in chemical reactions.
ABOUT IT’S HISTORY

• The spark of quantum computing was struck by Richard Faynman. In 1981 at MIT, he
presented the following quandary: classical computers cannot simulate the evolution
of quantum systems in an efficient way. Thus, he proposed a basic model for a
quantum computer that would be capable of such simulations. With this, he outlined
the possibility to exponentially outpace classical computers.
• In 1994, Peter Shor developed his algorithm allowing quantum computers to
efficiently factorize large integers exponentially quicker than the best classical
algorithm on traditional machines.
• In 1996, Lov Grover invented a quantum database search algorithm that presented a
quadratic speedup for a variety of problems.
• In 1998, a working 2-qubit quantum computer was built and solved first quantum
algorithms such as Grover’s algorithm. The race into a new era of computer power
began and more and more applications were developed.

Twenty years later, in 2017, IBM presented the first commercially usable
quantum computer, raising the race to another level.
ABOUT THE PRESENT
• IN 2019,IBM unveils its first commercial quantum computer, the IBM Q
System One,[222] designed by UK-based Map Project Office and Universal
Design Studio and manufactured by Goppion.
• Nike Dattani and co-workers de-code D-Wave's Pegasus architecture
and make its description open to the public.
• Austrian physicists demonstrate self-verifying, hybrid, variational
quantum simulation of lattice models in condensed matter and high-
energy physics using a feedback loop between a classical computer and
a quantum co-processor.
•As of September 2019, no scalable quantum computing hardware has
been demonstrated. Nevertheless, there is an increasing amount of
investment in quantum computing by governments, established
companies, and start-ups.

Current research focusses on building and using near-term


intermediate-scale devices and demonstrating quantum
 FUTURE SCOPE
PROS
• The main advantage of quantum computing is it can execute any task
very faster when compared to the classical computer, generally the
atoms changes very faster in case of the traditional computing whereas
in quantum computing it changes even more faster. But all the tasks
can’t be done better by quantum computing when compared to
traditional computer.
• In quantum computing qubit is the conventional superposition state
and so there is an advantage of exponential speedup which is resulted
by handle number of calculations.
• The other advantage of quantum computing is even classical algorithm
calculations are also performed easily which is similar to the classical
computer.
• Could process massive amount of complex data.
• Ability to solve scientific and commercial problems.
• Process data in a much faster speed.
• Capability to convey more accurate answers.
CONS

• Hard to control quantum particles


•Lots of heat
• Expensive
•Difficult to build
• Not suitable for word processing and email
• Problem of it need of a noise free & Cool Environment
• Complex hardware schemes like superconductors
• The main disadvantage of computing is the technology required to
implement a quantum computer is not available at present. The reason
for this is the consistent electron is damaged as soon as it is affected by
its environment and that electron is very much essential for the
functioning of quantum computers.
• The research for this problem is still continuing the effort applied to
identify a solution for this problem has no positive progress.
 CONCLUSION
The field of quantum computing is growing rapidly as many of today's leading
computing groups, universities, colleges, and all the leading IT vendors are researching
the topic. This pace is expected to increase as more research is turned into practical
applications. Although practical machines lie years in the future, this formerly fanciful
idea is gaining plausibility.

The current challenge is not to build a full quantum computer right away; instead to
move away from the experiments in which we merely observe quantum phenomena
to experiments in which we can control these phenomena. Systems in which
information obeys the laws of quantum mechanics could far exceed the performance
of any conventional computer. Therein lies the opportunity and the reward. No one
can predict when we will build the first quantum computer; it could be this year,
perhaps in the next 10 years, or centuries from now. Obviously, this mind-boggling
level of computing power has enormous commercial, industrial, and scientific
applications, but there are some significant technological and conceptual issue to
resolve first.

But quantum computers will come.