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2 vizualizări9 paginiThis all you want to know and learn about Quantum computing

Nov 10, 2019

Quantum Computing

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This all you want to know and learn about Quantum computing

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Quantum Computing

This all you want to know and learn about Quantum computing

© All Rights Reserved

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amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.

The fundamental notion that a physical property may be "quantized" is

referred to as "the hypothesis of quantization".This means that the

magnitude of the physical property can take on only discrete values

consisting of integer multiples of one quantum.

For example, a photon is a single quantum of light (or of any other form

of electromagnetic radiation).

states; they encode information as quantum bits, or qubits, which can

exist in superposition. Qubits represent atoms, ions, photons or electrons

and their respective control devices that are working together to act

as computer memory and a processor. Because a quantum computer can

contain these multiple states simultaneously, it has the potential to be

millions of times more powerful than today's most powerful

supercomputers.

technology based on the principles of quantum theory, which explains the

nature and behavior of energy and matter on the quantum (atomic and

subatomic) level.

Development of a quantum computer, if practical, would mark a leap forward

in computing capability far greater than that from the abacus to a modern

day supercomputer, with performance gains in the billion-fold realm and

beyond. The quantum computer, following the laws of quantum physics, would

gain enormous processing power through the ability to be in multiple states,

and to perform tasks using all possible permutations simultaneously. Current

centers of research in quantum computing include MIT, IBM, Oxford University,

and the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

The field of quantum computing was initiated by the work of Paul

Benioff study and Yuri Manin in 1980, Richard Feynman in 1982 study, and David

Deutsch in 1985. Source: Quantum computing at Wikipedia. Around 1960-

1973 the idea was beginning to form, but the field really started spreading in

the 1980s.

The Father of Quantum Computing. David Deutsch, Oxford University

theoretical physicist, is credited with being the father of quantum computing.

How Do Quantum Computers Work?

Quantum computers perform calculations based on the probability of an object's state

before it is measured - instead of just 1s or 0s - which means they have the potential to

process exponentially more data compared to classical computers.

Classical computers carry out logical operations using the definite position of a physical

state. These are usually binary, meaning its operations are based on one of two

positions. A single state - such as on or off, up or down, 1 or 0 - is called a bit.

produce what's known as a qubit. These states are the undefined properties of an object

before they've been detected, such as the spin of an electron or the polarisation of a

photon.

Rather than having a clear position, unmeasured quantum states occur in a mixed ‘

superposition', not unlike a coin spinning through the air before it lands in your hand.

These superpositions can be entangled with those of other objects, meaning their final

outcomes will be mathematically related even if we don't know yet what they are.

The complex mathematics behind these unsettled states of entangled 'spinning coins'

can be plugged into special mathematical algorithms to make short work of problems

that would take a classical computer a long time to work out... if they could ever

calculate them at all.

Such algorithms would be useful in solving complex problems, producing hard-to-break

security codes, or predicting multiple particle interactions in chemical reactions.

ABOUT IT’S HISTORY

• The spark of quantum computing was struck by Richard Faynman. In 1981 at MIT, he

presented the following quandary: classical computers cannot simulate the evolution

of quantum systems in an efficient way. Thus, he proposed a basic model for a

quantum computer that would be capable of such simulations. With this, he outlined

the possibility to exponentially outpace classical computers.

• In 1994, Peter Shor developed his algorithm allowing quantum computers to

efficiently factorize large integers exponentially quicker than the best classical

algorithm on traditional machines.

• In 1996, Lov Grover invented a quantum database search algorithm that presented a

quadratic speedup for a variety of problems.

• In 1998, a working 2-qubit quantum computer was built and solved first quantum

algorithms such as Grover’s algorithm. The race into a new era of computer power

began and more and more applications were developed.

Twenty years later, in 2017, IBM presented the first commercially usable

quantum computer, raising the race to another level.

ABOUT THE PRESENT

• IN 2019,IBM unveils its first commercial quantum computer, the IBM Q

System One,[222] designed by UK-based Map Project Office and Universal

Design Studio and manufactured by Goppion.

• Nike Dattani and co-workers de-code D-Wave's Pegasus architecture

and make its description open to the public.

• Austrian physicists demonstrate self-verifying, hybrid, variational

quantum simulation of lattice models in condensed matter and high-

energy physics using a feedback loop between a classical computer and

a quantum co-processor.

•As of September 2019, no scalable quantum computing hardware has

been demonstrated. Nevertheless, there is an increasing amount of

investment in quantum computing by governments, established

companies, and start-ups.

intermediate-scale devices and demonstrating quantum

FUTURE SCOPE

PROS

• The main advantage of quantum computing is it can execute any task

very faster when compared to the classical computer, generally the

atoms changes very faster in case of the traditional computing whereas

in quantum computing it changes even more faster. But all the tasks

can’t be done better by quantum computing when compared to

traditional computer.

• In quantum computing qubit is the conventional superposition state

and so there is an advantage of exponential speedup which is resulted

by handle number of calculations.

• The other advantage of quantum computing is even classical algorithm

calculations are also performed easily which is similar to the classical

computer.

• Could process massive amount of complex data.

• Ability to solve scientific and commercial problems.

• Process data in a much faster speed.

• Capability to convey more accurate answers.

CONS

•Lots of heat

• Expensive

•Difficult to build

• Not suitable for word processing and email

• Problem of it need of a noise free & Cool Environment

• Complex hardware schemes like superconductors

• The main disadvantage of computing is the technology required to

implement a quantum computer is not available at present. The reason

for this is the consistent electron is damaged as soon as it is affected by

its environment and that electron is very much essential for the

functioning of quantum computers.

• The research for this problem is still continuing the effort applied to

identify a solution for this problem has no positive progress.

CONCLUSION

The field of quantum computing is growing rapidly as many of today's leading

computing groups, universities, colleges, and all the leading IT vendors are researching

the topic. This pace is expected to increase as more research is turned into practical

applications. Although practical machines lie years in the future, this formerly fanciful

idea is gaining plausibility.

The current challenge is not to build a full quantum computer right away; instead to

move away from the experiments in which we merely observe quantum phenomena

to experiments in which we can control these phenomena. Systems in which

information obeys the laws of quantum mechanics could far exceed the performance

of any conventional computer. Therein lies the opportunity and the reward. No one

can predict when we will build the first quantum computer; it could be this year,

perhaps in the next 10 years, or centuries from now. Obviously, this mind-boggling

level of computing power has enormous commercial, industrial, and scientific

applications, but there are some significant technological and conceptual issue to

resolve first.

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