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PRINCIPLES AND

METHODS OF
TEACHING
Prepared By:
LOVELY L. ENFERMO
LEARNING OUTCOMES:
• Identify the elements of teaching (learner, teacher and
learning environment)
• Apply the principles of learning.
• Explain the Principles in Management of Instruction
(Objective-Related Principles, Selection and Organization
of Content, Selection and Use of Instructional Materials,
Assessment of Learning)
LEARNING OUTCOMES…
• Identify the different teaching approaches, strategy,
methods and techniques.
• Employ appropriate classroom management
techniques.
• Employ effective art of questioning techniques
• Identify the elements of a lesson/ learning/ an
instructional plan.
PRINCIPLES AND
METHODS OF
TEACHING
(REVIEW)
ELEMENTS OF
TEACHING
Identify the elements of teaching (learner, teacher and learning environment)

Elements of teaching

Learning
Learner Teacher
Environment
Identify the elements of teaching (learner, teacher and learning environment)

I. LEARNER “EMBODIED SPIRIT


Faculties of Learner
1. Cognitive Faculties
(Five Senses, Instinct, Imagination,
Memory, Intellect)
2. Appetitive Faculties
(Feelings and Emotions, Will)
Identify the elements of teaching (learner, teacher and learning environment)

I. LEARNER
ABILITY
ATTITUDE
AND APTITUDE
VALUES INDIVIDUAL
DIFFERENCES

FAMILY AND
CULTURAL INTEREST
BACKGROUND
Identify the elements of teaching (learner, teacher and learning environment)

I. LEARNER “EMBODIED SPIRIT

MULTIPLE
INTELLIGENCE
THEORY
DR. HOWARD
GARDNER
Identify the elements of teaching (learner, teacher and learning environment)

II. TEACHER
1.Professional Attributes
2. Personal Attributes
• Passion
• Humor
• Values and Attitude
• Patience
• Enthusiasm
• Commitment
Identify the elements of teaching (learner, teacher and learning environment)

III.LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
1. Physical Environment

2.Psychological Environment
• safety
• Relationships
• Teaching and Learning
Teacher A wants to have an effective teaching and
learning process. Which of the following factors
must be primarily considered?
A.Expertise of the teacher
B. Interest of the Learner
C. Needs of the learner
D.Availability of the instructional materials
Learners must be developed not only in the
cognitive, psychomotor but also in the affective
aspect. Why is development of the latter also
important?
a. It helps them develop a sound value system.
b. Their actions are dominated by their feelings.
c. It helps them develop an adequate knowledge of
good actions.
d. Awareness of the consequences of their action is
sharpened.
Which of the following characterizes best
an effective classroom manager? One
who is friendly yet
a. Rigid
b. Demanding
c. Business-like
d. Buddy-buddy
PRINCIPLES OF
LEARNING
Apply the principles of learning

PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING
Learning is…
• Experience which occurs inside the learner and is activated
by the learner
• Discovery of personal meaning and relevance of ideas
• Experiential
• Cooperative and collaborative process
Apply the principles of learning

PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING
Learning is…
• Evolutionary process
• Painful process
• The richest resource is the learner himself
• Emotional as well as intellectual
• Process of problem solving and learning are highly unique
and individual
Explain the Principles in Management of Instruction (Objective-Related Principles, Selection and
Organization of Content, Selection and Use of Instructional Materials, Assessment of Learning)

PRINCIPLES IN
MANAGEMENT OF
INSTRUCTION
Explain the Principles in Management of Instruction (Objective-Related Principles, Selection and
Organization of Content, Selection and Use of Instructional Materials, Assessment of Learning)

A. Objective-Related
Principles
OBJECTIVE-RELATED PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING
• Begin with the end of mind
• Share lesson objective with the students
• Lesson must be in two or three domain (cognitive, affective &
psychomotor)
• Work on significant and relevant lesson objectives
• Lesson objective must be aligned with the aims of education as embodied
in the Philippine Constitution and other laws and on the vision-mission
statements of the educational institution of which you are a part.
• Aim at the development of critical and creative thinking
• SMART
TAXONOMY OF OBJECTIVES
Cognitive Domain
 Bloom’s Taxonomy
 Anderson’s Taxonomy (Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy)
Affective Domain
 Krathwohl’s Taxonomy
Psychomotor Domain
 Moore’s Taxonomy
COGNITIVE DOMAIN

EVALUATION CREATING

SYNTHESIS EVALUATING

ANALYSIS ANALYZING

APPLICATION APPLYING

COMPREHENSION UNDERSTANDING
KNOWLEDGE REMEMBERING

Benjamin Bloom’s
Taxonomy Anderson’s Taxonomy
What are the main theories
used in discussing different
learning styles?

Knowledge
Comprehension Analysis Evaluation

Application Synthesis
What are the main theories
used in discussing different
learning styles?

Knowledge
What do you think
about the latest SONA of
the president?

Knowledge
Comprehension Analysis Evaluation

Application Synthesis
What do you think
about the latest SONA of
the president?

Evaluation
In Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives, the
domains are stated from lowest to highest level.
Which of the following objectives belongs to the
lowest level?
a. To identify the characters of the story.
b. To differentiate active from passive voice.
c. To give the available resources that could be
recycled to useful things.
d. To explain the procedure in changing improper
fraction to mixed number
AFFECTIVE DOMAIN

CHARACTERIZATION
BY VALUE SET

ORGANIZATION

VALUING

RESPONDING

RECEIVING

David Krathwohl’s Taxonomy


PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN

PRECISION

MANIPULATION

IMITATION

Moore’s Taxonomy
Explain the Principles in Management of Instruction (Objective-Related Principles, Selection and
Organization of Content, Selection and Use of Instructional Materials, Assessment of Learning)

B. Selection and
Organization of
Content
SELECTION AND ORGANIZATION OF CONTENT
1.Observe: Validity, Significance, Balance, Self-Sufficiency,
Interest, Utility, Feasibility
2. Factual
3. Integration of Cognitive, Skill and Affective elements
• Cognitive
• Skills : Manipulative & Thinking Skills
• Attitudes and Values
Explain the Principles in Management of Instruction (Objective-Related Principles, Selection and
Organization of Content, Selection and Use of Instructional Materials, Assessment of Learning)

C. Selection and Use


of Instructional
Materials
Selection and Use of Instructional Materials
All instructional materials are aids to instruction.
They do not replace a teacher
Choose the instructional material that best suits
your instructional objectives
If possible, use variety of tools.
Devices can make a lecture more
understandable and meaningful. What is
the most important thing a teacher
should consider in the selection and
utilization of instructional materials?
a. Objectives of the lesson
b. Availability of instructional materials
c. Attractiveness of instructional materials
d. Degree of interest on the part of the
students
Explain the Principles in Management of Instruction (Objective-Related Principles, Selection and
Organization of Content, Selection and Use of Instructional Materials, Assessment of Learning)

D. Assessment of
Learning
Assessment of Learning
Based on the objective and an integral part of TL
process
Attainable and Measurable
Not a disciplinary measure
Report results/ give feedback
Self-Assessment
Identify the different teaching approaches, strategy, methods and
techniques.

APPROACHES, METHODS,
STRATEGIES AND
TECHNIQUES IN
TEACHING
GUIDING PRINCIPLE IN THE SELECTION AND USE OF
TEACHING STRATEGIES
• Active process
• More Senses
• Emotion
• Relevance to real life
• Goes beyond recall of information
• Integrated approach
Approaches-is a set of principles, beliefs
APPROACHES or ideas about the nature of learning
which is translated into the classroom.

Strategies- science of developing a plan


to attain a goal; long-term plan of action STRATEGY
to achieve a particular goal

METHODS
Method- systematic way of doing
something. It implies an orderly logical
arrangement of steps. It is procedural.

Techniques – personalized style of


carrying out a particular step of a given TECHNIQUES
method. It is the teacher’s style or tricks
to accomplish an immediate objective.
Teaching approaches
Teacher-centered Learner-centered
Subject matter-centered Learner-centered
Teacher-dominated Interactive
Banking Approach Constructivist
Disciplinal Integrated
Individualistic Collaborative
direct, guided/Expository Indirect/Exploratory
TEACHING APPROACHES VARY DUE TO:
ENGAGEMENT
Teacher learner

FOCUS
subject matter FOCUS

NUMBER
INDIVIDUAL GROUP
Teaching Methods
Deductive vs. Inductive Method
Direct Lecture Method
Demonstration Method
Problem Based-Learning Method vs. Project-Based
Learning Method
Collaborative Method
Laboratory Method
“There is no such thing
as best method!”
To ensure the lesson will go smoothly, Teacher A
listed down the steps she will undertake together
with those of her students. This practice relates
to?
a. Teaching style
b. Teaching method
c. Teaching strategy
d. Teaching technique
The class of Grade 6 - Einstein is scheduled to
perform an experiment on that day.
However, the chemicals are insufficient.
What method may then be used?
a. Project
b. Laboratory
c. Lecture
d. Demonstration
Employ appropriate classroom management techniques.

CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
PRINCIPLES IN CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
• Consistent and proactive Discipline
• Establish routines
• Practice smooth transition
• Understand and imbibe “With-it-ness”
• Immediately respond to inappropriate behavior of students
• Classroom structure/ arrangements should be conducive to
learning
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

Types of Control
1. Preventive Control
2. Supportive Control
3. Corrective Control
TIPS FOR CLASSROOM CONTROL
• Ripple effect – spreading effect of series of consequences caused by
single action or event
• Hawthorne Effect-type of reactivity in which individuals improve an
aspect of their behavior in response to their awareness being observed
• Pygmalion Effect- Shows the teacher expectation
• Halo Effect – cognitive bias which an observer overall impression of a
person influence the observers feeling and thoughts about the entity’s
character or property
• Golem Effect – low expectation leads to decrease in performance
JACOB KOUNIN’S MANAGEMENT MODEL
POSITIVE TEACHER NEGATIVE TEACHER BEHAVIOR
BEHAVIOR
With-it-ness Stimulus-bounded
Thrust
Desist Dangling
Overlapping Truncations
Over-dwelling/ Sitiation
Fragmentation
Flip-Flop
Employ effective art of questioning techniques

ART OF
QUESTIONING
ART OF QUESTIONING

Categories of Questions

Closed Open

Convergent Divergent

Lower Level Higher Level


Guidelines in Asking Questions:
 Wait Time
 Prompting
 Redirection
 Probing
 Commenting
Asking a series of questions to a
student is a violation of which
technique in questioning?
A. Wait time
B. Prompting questions
C. Redirection
D. Probing questions
LET US RELATE PRINCIPLES OF
TEACHING TO…
Identify the elements of
teaching (learner, teacher and
learning environment)
1 What are the three elements of
teaching?
A. Teacher, Learner, Classroom
B. Teacher, Learner, Learning
Environment
C. Teacher, Instructional Leader,
Learning Environment
D. Teacher, Leader, Environment
2 It refers to learners’ innate
talent or gift
A. Ability
B. Interest
C. Aptitude
D. Family and Cultural Background
3 Which of the following
statements is correct?
A. Interpersonal Intelligence is when you know
your weaknesses and strengths.
B. Reanna has an intrapersonal intelligence
because she likes to be with different types of
people.
C. Myra has a musical intelligence because she
has wide and varied musical intelligence
including both classical and contemporary.
D. None of these.
4 Which of the following does
not belong to the group?

A. Passion
B. LET passer
C. Enthusiasm
D. Patience
5
In terms of psychological
climate, which of the following
does not belong to the group?
A. Teacher Anne implements rules and regulations.
B. Teacher Rino believes that we enjoy learning in a
neat, tidy, orderly, spacious, well-lighted, well-
ventilated and quiet classroom.
C. Teacher Aya uses diverse teaching strategies to
accommodate show respect for student diversity.
D. Teacher Ammy considers student’s interest and
emotion.
Apply the principles of
learning.
It is widely believed that teachers
6 facilitate learning. Which of the
following situations violates this
principle?
A. Teacher Robin is very much familiar with the latest teaching
innovations, so he attends seminars on educational
technology.
B. Mr. Harvey Yeung Hoi-Chun ridicules his students whenever
they commit infractions in the classroom.
C. The teachers of St. Marie Eugenie Academy perform not
only classroom roles but also involve themselves in
community development.
D. Mrs. Susanna Jarque uses proactive discipline methods in
the classroom and shows her students that she loves them.
In a Social Science class, teacher Elgen

7
required the students to write the first and last
stanzas of “Lupang Hinirang.” A student was
able to recall each word, “I had to sing it
siently.” What is the implication of this
strategy?
A.More active participation can make recall
easier.
B.Teaching strategies can facilitate learning by
appealing to their unique learning style.
C.Teaching strategies can make student’s
experience concrete
D.An integrated teaching approach is more
effective in strengthening moral connections.
Explain the Principles in Management of
Instruction (Objective-Related Principles,
Selection and Organization of Content,
Selection and Use of Instructional Materials,
Assessment of Learning)
Here are comments from School Head Carmen

8
regarding her observations on teacher’s practice in
lesson planning:
The words “identify,” “tell” and “enumerate” are
overused. Many times they make use of non-behavioral
terms. Often their lesson objectives do not include
value formation and inculcation.
What can be inferred from the School Head’s comments
regarding teacher formulated lesson objectives?

A.Often lesson objectives are in the low level


B.Very often lesson objectives are in the cognitive
domain
C.Quite often lesson objectives describe teacher’s
behavior
D.Often lesson objectives are in the psychomotor
domain
After giving an input on a good
9 paragraph, Teacher W asks her
students to rate a given paragraph
along the elements of a good
paragraph. The students’ task is in
level of _________.
A.Application C. Evaluation
B.Analysis D. Synthesis
After reading and paraphrasing Robert
10 Frost’s Stopping by the Woods on Snowy
Evening, Teacher Marko asked the class
to share any insight derived from the
poem. In which domain in Bloom’s
taxonomy of objectives is the term
paraphrase?
A.Analysis C. Comprehension
B.Application D. Synthesis
Krathwohl’s affective domain
11 of objectives recognizes this
as the lowest level of his
domain
A.Responding C. Valuing
B.Organization D. Characterization
When choosing teaching
12 devices, which is the primary
consideration that teachers
must think about?
A.appropriateness C. cost
B.attractiveness D. novelty
13 “Porma” (form) over substance is
evident in students in one of these
instances.
A.Harvey submitted his comprehensive written report to
Mrs. Topaco even if it was soiled with tomato ketchup.
B.Kesha submitted her written report to Ms. Yalung
even if it reeked of the cigarette she smoked before
class.
C.Joel submitted his written report to Mr. Chow a week
in advance.
D.Olivia submitted her poorly written report, which was
printed on perfumed stationery, to her English for
Research teacher Dr. Verchez.
English Literature professor, Dr. Norman

14 Huelves wants his students to compare and


contrast the book and film versions of “Harry
Potter”. His students may use this type of
graphic organizer.

A.Graphic organizers C. Venn Diagram


B.Learning log D. Story frame
Ms. Rachelle Feliciano, a literature
15 professor, wants to present historical
movements in Philippine literature. What
is the most appropriate teaching tool for
Ms. Feliciano to use?

A.Time line C. Venn Diagram


B.Cluster map D. Story Map
In her science class, Teacher Mabel
16 can show the cause and effect of
teen sex and pregnancy by using
this type of technique.
A.K-W-L technique C. Spider web
B.Histogram D. Fishbone Diagram
Ms. Jane Cheung Yuk-Yin, a biology
17 teacher, wants to show her students
how blood circulates in the heart.
Which of the following devices is
suitable for Ms. Cheung’s lesson?

A.Diorama C. Replica
B.Realia D. Mock-up
In planning for instruction,
18 can a teacher begin with
assessment?
A.No, it may discourage and scare the learners
B.Yes, determine entry knowledge or skill
C.Yes, to make the class pay attention
D.No, assessment is only at the end of a lesson
Identify the different teaching
approaches, strategy, methods and
techniques.
It refers to a set of assumptions that
19 define beliefs and theories about the
nature of the learner and the
process of learning.

A.Approach C. Strategy
B.Technique D. Method
Which of the following is
20 true about deductive
teaching?
A.Deductive teaching is often referred as
indirect instruction
B.It is also known as direct instruction
C.This is done by giving examples and
specific details then generalization.
D.Both A and C
The role of the teacher in the
21 indirect instruction is more of
a _______.
A.facilitator C. knowledge-dispenser
B.coach D. information-provider
Which of the following topics
22 would require the use of
direct instruction?
A.Re-igniting the passion for teaching
B.Bike maintenance and repair
C.The Urgency of K-12 Curriculum
D.The Constitutionality of “pork barrel”
Constructivist teaching emphasizes
on knowledge construction with the
23 aid of prior experiences. Which of
the following contradicts the
features of constructivism?
A.Learning situations, environments, skills, content
and tasks are irrelevant and suppositious to the
real world context.
B.Encourages introspection, self-assessment and
metacognition
C.Reproduction of knowledge is not emphasized.
D.Emphasizes interrelatedness of concepts.
“There are no dull textbooks, no dull
24 subjects, only dull teachers.” How
can teachers connect subject matter
to life?
A.Derive the lessons from the content of the
subject matter.
B.Depart teaching for test purpose only.
C.Appertain the lesson to the real life context.
D.Both B and C.
“Coming together is the beginning; keeping
together is progress; and working together is
25 success.” This statement emphasizes
collaborative learning. Which of the following
responsibilities are the tasks of a teacher in
the collaborative learning?
A.Begin with the conviction that every student can
share something in the attainment of the goal.
B.Structures tasks in a way that the group goal
cannot be realized without the members
collaboration.
C.Must make clear that at the end of the activity,
they have to reflect together.
D.All of the above
26 Which of the following steps of Problem-
Based Learning are properly arranged?
I. Develop a problem statement
II. Gather and analyze information
III.Read and analyze the problem scenario
IV.Present findings and recommendations
V.List of action, hypothesis and solutions
A.I, II, III, IV and V C. III, II, I, V and IV
B.III, I, II, V and IV D. III, II, I, IV and V
The following reminders are considered
27 necessary for Project-Based Learning
(PrBL) to succeed, except:
A.The presentation of product or project is the
end of PrBL
B.Embolden the students to employ creative
and interesting ways of presenting their
project to sustain audience’s attention.
C.Students should be given sufficient time to
work.
D.Both A and B.
The following are applications of the
strategies in identifying similarities
28 and differences. Which is the best
example for classifying strategy?
A.Using a Venn diagram to compare and contrast
even and odd numbers.
B.hot:cold::day:night
C.“A teacher is a bridge that collapses after every
children have crossed.”
D.Using a table to categorize the theories of learning.
There is no such thing as better or best method

29
because the effectiveness of method is
dependent on various factors. Which of the
following are the factors the method’s
effectiveness?

I. Teacher’s Readiness
II.Learner’s readiness
III.Nature of the subject matter
IV.Time allotment for a subject
A.I only C. II and III only
B.I, III and IV D. I, II, III and IV
Some of Teacher Rosanna’s students have been

30
continually observed to have had problems in
comprehending her Math lessons, in which she
keeps on lecturing. What is the best thing for
Teacher Rosanna to do in order to help her
students catch up with the lessons?
A.Keep on teaching even if her style does not
change.
B.Give pop quizzes to her students.
C.Encourage students’ participation during every
meeting.
D.Give her students low grades
Mr. Daniel Arcadio, a high school home
economics teacher, wanted to teach
31 proper table etiquette to his senior
students. He set up a long dinner table
with complete formal dinner set-up and
demonstrated the proper use of cutlery
and chinaware. He let his students
practice eating at a formal dinner. What
the students performed in Mr. Arcadio’s
class was _______________.
A.Brainstorming C. Simulation
B.Panel discussion D. Role Playing
32
Which learning activity is
most appropriate if teacher’s
focus in attitudinal change?
A.Role play C. Exhibit
B.Field trip D. Game
Employ appropriate classroom
management techniques.
33 This classroom practice is not
recommended because it does
not promote sound classroom
management.
A.Enforcing firm and fair discipline in the
classroom.
B.Applying rules and regulations on a case-to-case
basis.
C.Developing a system of coming in and going out
of the room.
D.Establishing rules, regulations, and routines
starting on the first day of school.
Which among the statements
34 below does not characterize
effective classroom
management?
A.It teaches students to depend on others for
self-control and self-regulation.
B.It redirects misbehavior quickly once it
occurs.
C.It respects cultural norms and creeds of
students.
D.Strategies are uncomplicated that they can
35 Which of the following situations
depict a well-managed and
learning-conductive class?
A.Students pursue their task without inhibition in
Mr. Raymundo’s class.
B.The learners are controlled by their homeroom
teacher Ms. Nonato.
C.There is blind obedience among Mrs.
Quiambao’s students
D.The learners are eager to reach their objectives,
especially in Mr. Montesa’s music class.
36 All of the following situations
exemplify respect for individual
differences, except for this situation.
A.Mr. Arellano prepare modules for slow learners in
his Math class.
B.Ms. Mauricio gives greater attention to gifted
learners in her class.
C.Teacher Albie conceptualizes and implements a
variety of learning activities.
D.Teacher Maureen treats all learners alike while in
the classroom.
This type of power is manifested by
37 a teacher when he shows his
students his vast knowledge of a
subject matter.
A.philosophical power C. legitimate power
B.expert power D. referent power
Ms. Christine Cheung Tin-Ha, a
38 new teacher at St. Monica
University, can assert her reward
power to her students by
_______________.
A.Showing her students that she knows the lesson
very well.
B.Assuring her students that they can succeed in
class.
C.Asserting her students of her authority.
D.Giving her students the grades that are
tantamount to their efforts.
This influence technique is best applied
39 to the following example: Mr. Frederick
Kwok Fan-Chui looks in his students’
eyes to tell them that he disapproves of
their mischievous behavior.

A.Proximity control C. Direct appeal


B.Interest boosting D. Signal interference
Kounin asserts that one of the
40 characteristics of an effective manager
is “With-it-ness”. Which principle serves
as the basis of “with-it-ness”?

A.Have a mouth ready to speak at any time


B.Have minds packed with intellect and
alertness
C.Have hands that write fast
D.Have eyes at the back of one’s head
Ripple effect can also be seen
41 in misdemeanor. The teacher
should therefore:
A.Reinforce positive behavior
B.Immediately responds to
misbehavior
C.Be consistent in classroom
management
D.Count 1 to 10 before she gets angry
On the first day of school, Teacher Yveta oriented her

42 class on procedures to be observed in passing papers,


getting textbooks from and returning the same on the
bookshelf, leaving the room for necessity, and
conducting group work. She arranged the chairs in
such a way that students can interact and can move
around without unnecessarily distracting those seated.
She involved the class in the formulation of rules to
ensure punctuality, order and cleanliness in the
classroom. On what belief is Teacher Yveta's
management practice anchored?
A. Classroom rules need to be imposed for order's sake
B. The classroom environment affects learning
C. A teacher must lord her power over her students to be an effective
classroom manager
D. A reactive classroom management style is effective
43 Teacher Yveta involved her
students in the formulation of
class rules. Which describes her
classroom management style?
A.Benevolent C. Democratic
B.Authoritarian D. Laissez-faire
44 Which adjective appropriately
describes Teacher Yveta as a
classroom manager?
A.Proactive C. Reactive
B.Modern D. Traditional
45 Was it sound classroom
management practice for Teacher
Yveta to have involved the students
in the formulation of class rules?
A.No, it weakens the teacher's authority over her
students
B.Yes, it makes students feel a sense of ownership
of the rules
C. Yes, it lessens a teacher's work
D.No, it is a students' act of usurpation of teacher’s
power
46 Which assumption underlies
Teacher Yveta's classroom
management practice?
A.Classroom routines are boring and will work when
imposed
B.Classroom routines leave more time for class
instruction
C. Students need to be treated like adults to learn
responsibility
D.Teacher's personality is a critical factor in
classroom discipline
Employ effective art of questioning
techniques
Which of the following types
47 of questions limit students’
ability to think creatively and
critically?
A.Open-ended C. Probing questions
B.Divergent D. Convergent
Which type of questioning does Mr.
48 Adona use when he does follow-up
questioning in order to elicit more
from his students and to make them
think more critically?
A.Probing C. Prompting
B.Leading D. Wait Time
Dr. Agnes Romero, a History
49 professor, has this habit of calling
her student’s name before asking
them a question during recitation.
This practice is considered:
A.Right, because it makes the students very attentive.
B.Wrong, because the moment the teacher calls a
name, the rest of the class will not listen anymore to
the question since it’s not for them.
C.Right, because it gives certain formality to the
recitation.
D.Wrong, because the question may not be suited for
that particular student.
To connect the lesson on
50 water conservation to the life
of the students, which
question is most appropriate?
A.Based on your observations, in what ways do
people contribute to water wastage?
B.How can you help conserve water?
C.Among families, who contributes most to water
conservation?
D.What maybe the reason why even if Family B is
not as big as Family C, it consumes much more
water than Family C?
Identify the elements of a lesson/
learning/ an instructional plan.
Which of the following parts of
51 an instructional plan are
properly arranged?
A.Objective, Subject Matter, Procedure,
Evaluation, Assignment
B.Objective, Procedure Subject Matter,
Assignment Evaluation
C.Subject Matter, Objective, Evaluation,
Procedure, Assignment
D.Objective, Subject Matter, Procedure,
Assignment, Evaluation
For lesson plans to have a consistent
52 and strong connection from start to
finish, it must have ________________.

A.conciseness C. symmetry
B.coherence D. clarity
Teachers review the past
53 lesson before getting to the
new lesson in order for them to
_____________.
A.Check if parents guide their children in
accomplishing given homework.
B.Make sure that the students understand the pre-
requisite skills of the lesson.
C.Prepare the students for the mastery test.
D.Make learning interesting and enjoyable for
students.
For lesson clarity and effective
54 retention, which should a
teacher observe, according to
Bruner’s theory?
A.Begin teaching at the concrete level but go
beyond it by reaching the abstract
B.Use purely verbal symbols in teaching
C.Start at the concrete level and end there
D.End teaching with verbal symbols
Mrs. Domingo developed a lesson on the concept of
fraction this way: First, she presented one pizza, and
55 then asked a pupil to cut it into two. She called one
part of the pizza 1/2 and the two parts of 2/2. Then she
wrote 1/2 and 2/2 on the board. She proceeded to ask
another pupil to divide the half parts of the cake into
two again, and then wrote 1/2, 2/4 and 3/4. Then she
used the model of fractions (wooden circles) divided
into 2, 3 and 4 show 1/2, 1/4, 1/3, 2/4. Then she went
back to the fractions she wrote on the board. She
asked her pupils for the meaning of 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 2/4. Did
Mrs. Domingo follow Bruner's three stage
development of knowledge?
A. Yes
B. No
C. Only in the first stage
D. Cannot be determined because the lesson was not
developed fully
REFERENCES:
Corpuz, Brenda B. and Gloria G. Salandanan. (2015). Principles of Teaching 2 with
TLE. Quezon City: Lorimar Publihing Inc.

Duka, Cecilio D. (2017). Reviewer for the Licensure Examination for Teachers
(LET) , 6th ed. Manila: Manila Review Institute Inc.

Corpuz, Brenda B. and Gloria G. Salandanan. (2015). Principles of Teaching 1. 4th


ed. Quezon City: Lorimar Publihing Inc.

Salandanan, Gloria G.(2006) Methods of Teaching. Quezon City: Lorimar Publihing


Inc.

Conception, Benjamin.,et.al. (2015). Licensure Examination for Teachers NCBTS


Oriented 2015 Edition. Manila: Modern Education for Teacher (MET) Review
Publishing House.

2011 Comprehensive LET Reviewer Based on NCBTS and Table of Specifications


(TOS) Professional Education. Quezon City: Lorimar Publishing Inc.
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