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LESSON 1:

INTRODUCTION, FORMAL
AND NON-FORMAL
EDUCATION
Reporter: Fernando, Daniella P .
• The Constitution expressly provide for the grant of
basic services to the people.The grant of equal
opportunities for education to all citizens, rich and
poor. In the words of Pres. Magsaysay, “those who have
less in life should have more in law”.
• Designed to afford every citizen equal access of
opportunities for intellectual growth.
• Education Law is intended to meet the concerns of
the educational system.
• Atty. Ulpiano P. Sarmiento III identifies two distinct modes
of delivery, FORMAL EDUCATION and the NON FORMAL
EDUCATION Technical and Vocational and Training (TVET)
system.
• Electronic communication has reduced the world into a
global village.
• Most higher learning institutions worldwide operate in the
online environment to educate students and professionals
alike.
• Online courses are any courses, regardless whether they
come with credits or not, that can be take by a student at
any location of their choice through the internet.
UNIVERSITIES IN THE PHILIPPINES
THAT OFFER COURSES THAT CAN BE
TAKEN ONLINE.
• University of the Philippines Open University
• Polytechnic University of the Philippines Open University
• Benguet State University Open University
• University of Northern Philippines Open University
• Central Luzon State University Open University
• Philippine Normal University Open University
• DLSU-Manila’s Center for Educational Multimedia (CREM)
SCHOOLS BASED ABROAD THAT
OFFER ACCESSIBLE ONLINE COURSES
FOR FREE:
• Harvard University • Yale University
• Massachusetts Institute • University of Michigan
of Technology (MIT) • Utah State University
• Carnegie Mellon • Stanford University
University Open
Learning
LIKEWISE,THERE ARE GOVERNMENT
AGENCIES IN THE PHILIPPINES THAT OFFER
ONLINE COURSES FOR FREE:
• Department of Agriculture (some are free, some are not)
• Technical Education and Skill Development Authority
(TESDA) ;
other organizations offer online courses for free as follows:
• EdX – is a non-profit enterprise that features learning,
designed specifically for interactive study via web.
• Coursera – a social entrepreneurship company in partnership
with the top universities, offer courses online for free.
• Connexions Consortium – a group of organizations and
individuals to advance free educational technology and
educational content.
• Open Education Consortium - worldwide community of
hundreds of higher education institutions and associated
organizations committed to advancing OpenCourseWare.
• Wikiversity – is a Wikimedia Foundation (the same
group behind Wikipedia)
• Khan Academy – non-profit organization, goal is to
change education for the better by providing a free
world class for anyone anywhere.
• Udacity – non-profit organization that gives student
from all over the world access to free higher
education materials.
• Codecademy – is a team of computer
programmers working hard to build a better way
for anyone to teach and learn how to code.
FORMAL EDUCATION
• The recognition and adoption of Formal Education as the states main
tool to attain national educational goals and objectives are based on
Section 20 of BP 232. Formal education has two equally important
sub-systems: the private school system and the public school system.
• Formal Education refers to the hierarchically structured and
chronologically graded learning organized and provided by the formal
school system for which certification is required in order for the
learner to progress through the grades or move to higher levels.
FORMAL EDUCATION SHALL
CORRESPOND TO THE FOLLOWING
LEVELS:
1.) Elementary Education - the first stage of compulsory, formal education
primarily concerned with providing basic education and usually corresponding to
six or seven grades, including pre-school programs.
2.) Secondary Education – following the elementary level concerned primarily
with continuing basic education.
3.) Tertiary Education – post-secondary schooling is higher education leading
to a degree in a specific profession discipline.
NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
• Article XIV, Sec. 2 of the 1987 Constitution declares that the state shall:
(4) Encourage non-formal, informal, and indigenous learning systems, as
well as self-learning, independent, and out-of-school study programs,
particularly those that respond to community needs, and;
(5) Provide adult citizens, the disabled, and out-of-school youth with
training ins civics, vocational efficiency, and other skill.
THE NATURE OF NON-FORMAL
TECHNICAL VOCATIONAL AND
TRAINING (TVET) SYSTEM
• Non-formal technical vocational and training system – shall refer to ay
organized program of instruction on technical knowledge and skills, proficiency
undertaken by the authority or by other agencies.
• Alternative Learning System – a ladderized, modular non-formal education
program in the Philippines for drop-outs elementary and secondary schools.
2 different schematics for conducting instruction:
a.) School-based programs
b.) Community-based programs
ALTERNATIVE DELIVERY MODES
(ADMS)
- A non formal basic education are implemented to
enhance certain performance indicators in order to
achieve 2015 targets o Education For All (EFA) and the
Millenium Development Goal (MDG) on achieving the
universal primary education.
ADM’S BOTH IN ELEMENTARY AND
SECONDARY LEVELS

Elementary Level
1. Multigrade Instruction – an alternative delivery of formal
education whereby there is on teacher for two, three, or four
different grade levels of student in a single class.
2. Modified In-School, Off-School Approach (MISOSA) – can
be considered a liberating approach.
- combines formal and non-formal learning activities to meet the
needs for classrooms, learning materials and teachers.
This is done in compliance with existing policies:
- DepED Order #23, s. 2005 re time allotment
- DepED Order No. 33, s. 2004 re grading system
- DepEd Order No. 53, s. 2011 re policy guidelines
Benefits in implementing MISOSA
a) Resolving the problem of shortage of instructional material
b) Improving classroom management
c) Promoting equal access and opportunity for learning
d) Institutionalizing systematic monitoring
e) Developing pupils’ study habit, love for learning and self esteem
f) Attending to the unique needs of individual pupils.
3. Instructional Management by Parents, the Community and
Teachers (IMPACT)
- Developed by SEAMEO INNOTECH, address high student population and high
percentage of dropouts.
- The programs use audio and video tapes in English, Science, Mathematics, Filipino, and
Information Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching the lessons.
IMPACT offers 3 delivery modes / Principles of the e-IMPACT System:
a) Programmed teaching
b) Peer group learning
c) Individual study
IMPACT also uses collaborative and self-directed
approaches:
- A technology-enhanced alternative delivery mode.
- Developed to address high student population and high
percentage dropouts; and
- Management system where the parents, teachers, and
community collaborate to provide the child with quality
education at less cost.
Secondary Level
1. Effective and Affordable Secondary Education (EASE) – one of ADMs designed
and implemented program to compliment the existing formal system. It is possible for
students to learn outside school through self-instructional modules.
2. Open High School System (OHSS) – high school students who incur in long-term
absences or who are permanently unable to attend school. OHSP uses the concept of
distance education.
3. Dropout Reduction Program (DORP) – under the DORP, SARDOs and provided
three modes of learning to enable to continue schooling even without attending formal
classes.
They are:
a) Modular System - students are given their learning modules
which they can bring home for self study.
b) Internet-based learning – an online learning that is still piloted,
and
c) Blended Technology – a merger of the modular and Internet-
based modes of teaching and learning (K TO 12 TOOLKIT
Reference guide for teachers educator, School Administrators,
Teacher 2012)
4. ALS Programs – currently, the DepEd offers ALS Programs through
the Bureau of Alternative Learning. The Programs are:
- Basic Literacy Program – a community-based educational program for out-
of-school children, youth, adults to help the develop basic literacy skills.
- Accreditation and Equivalence (A&E) Program – is offered for literates
who have not completed 10 years of basic education. After passing the A&E
examination, these are the following opportunities:
(a) enter college/ university, (b) enter other non formal training programs (c)
enter formal training programs (d) re-enter the world of work, (e) re-enter
Elem. or secondary school system, (f) learn essential life skills, Political, social,
and economic lives in the community
- Indigenous Peoples (IP) Education – a program that aims to develop an
IP culture-sensitive core curriculum, learning materials and assessment
tools/instruments.
For IP Education, the core areas of the curriculum are:
(a) Family life, (b) civic consciousness, (c) environment, (d) health, sanitation,
and nutrition
- Informal Education (IE) Program – provides opportunities for
adolescents, parents, and street children to gain knowledge and skills, and to
help them improve their character, attitude, and values from daily
experiences at home, at work, at play, and from life itself.