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# Nature of Inquiry and

Research
Ms. Christene Gavine E. Reyes
The learner demonstrates
understanding of:
• the characteristics, strengths,
weaknesses, and kinds of quantitative
research
• the importance of quantitative research
across fields
• the nature of variables
•The learner is able to
decide on suitable
quantitative research in
different areas of interest

The learner:
•describes characteristics, strengths,
weaknesses, and kinds of quantitative
research
•illustrates the importance of quantitative
research across fields.
•differentiates kinds of variables and their
uses
Characteristics,
Strengths, Weaknesses,
and Kinds of Quantitative
Research

Objectives:
•The students are expected to:

## •describe the characteristics of quantitative research

•identify the characteristics of quantitative research
described in statements
•complete the Star Diagram in summarizing the
characteristics of quantitative research
• Quantitative Research is an objective, systematic,
empirical investigation of the observable phenomena
through the use of computational techniques.
• It highlights numerical analysis of data hoping that
the numbers yield unbiased results that can be
generalized to some larger population and explain
particular observation.
• Simple quantitative research is concerned with
numbers and its relationship with events.
1. Objective
2. Clearly defined Research Questions
3. Structured Research Instruments
4. Numerical Data
5. Large Sample sizes
6. Replication
7. Future Outcomes
• Quantitative research seeks accurate measurement
and analysis of target concepts. It is not based on
mere intuitions and guesses. Data are gathered
before proposing a conclusion or solution to a
problem.

• In quantitative research, the researchers know in
advance what they are looking for. The research
questions are well defined for which objective
answers are sought. All aspects of the study are
carefully designed before data are gathered.

• Data are normally gathered using structured
research tools such as questionnaires to collect
measurable characteristics of the population such as
age, socio-economic status, number of children etc.

• Data are in the form of numbers and statistics,
often organized and presented using tables, charts,
graphs and figures that consolidate large numbers of
data to show trends, relationships or differences
among variables.

• To arrive at more reliable data analysis, a normal
population distribution is preferred. This requires a
large number of population size, depending on how
the characteristics of population vary. Random
sampling is recommended in determining the sample
size to avoid researchers’ bias in interpreting the
results.

• Reliable quantitative research can be repeated to
verify and confirm the correctness of the results in
another setting.

• By using complex mathematical calculations and
with the aid of computers, if-then scenarios may be
formulated thus predicting future results.

Source: Faltado, R.E., Bombita, M.B., & Boholano H. B.
(2017). Practical Research 2 (Quantitative Research for
SHS) (pp 1-2). Cubao, Quezon City: Lorimar Publishing
Inc

Objectives:
• The students are expected to:

## • explain the strengths and weaknesses of quantitative research

• classify situations in conducting study whether it is strength or
weakness of quantitative research
• complete the T-chart in summarizing the strengths and
weaknesses of quantitative research
Conducting of quantitative
researcher.

• It is objective. Since it provides numerical data, it
can’t be easily misinterpreted.
• The use of statistical techniques facilitates
sophisticated analyses and allows you to
comprehend a huge amount of vital characteristics of
data.

• The numerical data can be analyzed in a quick and
easy way. By employing the statistically valid random
models, findings can be generalized to the
population about which information is necessary.
• Quantitative studies are replicable, standardized
approaches allow the study to be replicated in
different areas or over time with the formulation of
comprehensible findings.
• Quantitative research requires large number of
respondents, it is assumed that the larger the sample
is, the more statistically accurate the findings are.
• It is costly. Since there are more respondents
compared to qualitative research, the expenses will
be greater in reaching out to these people and in
reproducing the questionnaires.

• The information contextual factors to help interpret
the results or to explain variations are usually
ignored. It does not consider the distinct capacity of
the respondents to share and elaborate further
information unlike the qualitative research.
• Information are difficult to gather using structured
research instruments specifically sensitive issues like
pre-marital sex, domestic violence, among others.
• If not done seriously and correctly, data from
questionnaires may be incomplete and inaccurate.
Researchers must look on respondents who are just

Source: Faltado, R.E., Bombita, M.B., & Boholano H. B.
(2017). Practical Research 2 (Quantitative Research for
SHS) (pp 2-3). Cubao, Quezon City: Lorimar Publishing
Inc.

Objectives:
• The students are expected to:

## •explain each of the kinds of quantitative research

•classify the statements on kinds of quantitative research
whether it is true or false
•complete the Flower Diagram in summarizing the learning
on the kinds of quantitative research
The kind of research is dependent on the researcher’s
aim in conducting the study and the extent to which the
findings will be used. The following are the various kinds of
quantitative research that a researcher may employ.

1. Descriptive Research
2. Correlational Research
3. Evaluation Research
4. Survey Research
5. Causal Comparative Research
6. Experimental Research

• This design is concerned with describing the nature,
characteristics and components of the population or
a phenomenon.

## • This design attempts to find general attributes of the

presently existing situation and determine the
frequency with which it occurs.

• Descriptive research is used if, for example the
research wants to know how many hours senior high
school spend in social media, the number of
malnourished students who failed in the achievement
test, and how healthy is the food served during the
recess in the public school.

• It is a systematic investigation of the nature of
relationship, or associations between among
variables without necessarily investigating into
causal reasons underlying them.

## • It is also concerned with the extent of relationships

that exists between or among the variables.

• For example, if pre-board examination results can be
used to predict performance in the Licensure
Examination for Teachers (LET), then the higher the
pre-board grade, the most likely be the score in the
LET.
• Correlational research is employed if you like to
know, for example, if the following factors are related
to each other: sex and mathematical ability, marriage
and cancer recovery, occupation and life span.
• It aims to assess the effects and impacts or
outcomes of practices, policies and programs.
Assessing of nursing care in a hospital and
determining the impact of new treatment procedure
for patients are examples of evaluation research.

• It is used to gather information from groups of people
by selecting and studying samples chosen from
population.it may be done in various ways like face-
to-face, phone, mail, and online.
• A survey research may be cross-sectional if the
information is collected from a sample in just single
point of time just like the child-rearing practices of
single parents, and population practices of unmarried
couples.
• A survey research is considered longitudinal if the
researcher collects information on the same subjects
over a period of time, sometimes lasting many years
in order to study the changes through the years.
• Longitudinal survey is utilized, for example, to
determine the growth of rice yield in the country and
the rate of promotion of doctorate degree holders
five years after earning the degree.
• It is also known as ex post facto (after the fact)
research.

## • This kind of research derives conclusion from

observations and manifestation that already occurred
in the past and now compared to some dependent
variables. It discusses why and how a phenomenon
occurs.
• For example, a researcher is interested in how
weight influences stress coping level of adults.

## • Here, the subjects would be separated into different

group (underweight, normal weight, over weight) and
their stress-coping levels measured.

## • This is an ex post facto design because pre-existing

characteristic (weight) was used to form the groups. 36
• This research utilizes scientific method to test cause-
and-effect relationships under conditions controlled
by the researcher.
• In this case an effort is made to determine and
impose control over all other variables except one.
• An independent variable is manipulated to determine
the effects on the dependent variables.

• For instance, a teacher would like to know if a new
teaching strategy is effective or not so he/she
teaches one section using the new strategy and
teaches another comparable section without the new
strategy, then an achievement test was given to the
two sections.

• The manipulated independent variable is the new
teaching strategy which is being tested if it has an
effect on the dependent variable which is the
achievement of the students. Notice that the sections
are comparable with one another meaning all other
variables are controlled by the teacher