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Sheba Sugathan

INTRODUCTION
 Protein fragments

 Positive impact on health

 Activity based on inherent amino acid composition


and sequence
 Size of active sequences vary from 2-20 aminoacid
residues
 Effect beyond their role as substrates for oxidation
and tissue building
 First reported in 1950 by Mellander
 ‘Delicious peptide’
 Inactive within parent molecule
PRODUCTION OF BIOACTIVE
PEPTIDES
 Enzymatic hydrolysis by digestive enzymes
 Fermentation with proteolytic starter
 Proteolysis by enzyme derived from plants or
microorganisms
BIOACTIVE PEPTIDES IN MILK
 Milk proteins – important source

 Enzymatic protein hydrolysate


and fermented dairy products

 Anti hypertensive, anti thrombotic, anti microbial,


antioxidative, immunomodulatory, opioid peptides
BIOACTIVE PEPTIDES FROM MILK
proteins
Bioactivity
Anti hypertensive
Example
Casokinins
Parent protein
casein

ACE Inhibitors Lactokinins Lactalbumin,


lactoglobulin
Anti microbial Lactoferricin Lactoferrin
Isracidin casein
Anti thrombotic Casoplatelins casein
Immunomodulatory Immunopeptides Casein
lactoglobulin
Mineral binding caseinophosphopeptides casein
Opioid agonist Casomorphins Casein
lactorphins Lactoglobulin
lactalbumin
Opioid antagonist Lactoferricin Lactoferrin
Casoxin Casein
Beta lactotensin lactoglobulin
PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS
 Cardiovascular system
 Hypotensive peptides- hypertension
 Angiotensin converting enzyme(ACE) – peptidyl
dipeptide hydrolase
 Low molecular weight peptides are more effficient than
high molecular weight peptides
 Sour milk - Calpis
 Val-Pro-Pro (VPP) and Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP)-
Lb.helveticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Gastrointestinal system

 Regulation of digestive enzymes

 Modulation of nutrient absorption

 Glycomacropeptide- sialic acid - bifidobacterium

 Appetite control and weight management


Immune system
 Immuno peptides – direct and indirect

 Direct- interact directly with cells of immune system

 Indirect- through antimicrobial activities, stimulating


growth of gut microflora

 Casein and lactoglobulin

 Lb.helveticus – cell wall bound proteases- antioxidant and


immunomodulatory peptides
Nervous system

• opioid peptides – hormones and neurotransmitters

• Agonist or antagonist

• β- casomorphin(BCM) - 5, 7
Nutritional status and dental health
 Caseinophosphopeptides(CPP)
 High negative charge
 Bind divalent cations

 Form soluble organophosphate salts


 Enhance mineral uptake
 Prevent enamel demineralisation
 Anti cariogenic
COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS
Brand product Bioactive Health/ functional manufa
name peptides claims cturer

Calpis Sour milk Val-Pro-Pro, Reduction of blood Calpis


Ile-Pro-Pro pressure co.
(β casein Japan
and k-
casein)

Evolus Calcium Val-Pro-Pro, Reduction of blood Valio oy,


enriched Ile-Pro-Pro pressure Finland
fermented
milk drink
Biozate Hydrolysed β- Reduction of blood Davisco,
whey lactoglobuli pressure USA
protein n fragments
isolate
PRODIET Flavoured milk αs1 casein f(91- Reduction of Ingredia, France
F200/lactium drink 100) stress

Festivo Fermented low αs1 casein f(1-6, No health claim MTT Agrifood
fat hard cheese 1-7, 1-9) research,
Finland

Cysteine Ingredient/ Milk protein- Aids to raise DMV


Peptide hydrolysate derived peptide energy level and International,
sleep the
Netherlands

C12 Ingredient/ Casein derived Reduction of DMV


hydrolysate peptide blood pressure International,
the
Netherlands

Capolac Ingredient Caseinophosph Helps mineral Arla Foods


opeptide absorption Ingredients,
Sweden
PeptoPro Ingredient/ Casein derived Improves athletic DSM Food
hydrolysate peptide performance and Specialties,
muscle the
recovery Netherlands

Vivinal Alpha Ingredient/ Whey derived Aids relaxation and Borculo Domo
hydrolysate peptide sleep Ingredients
(BDI), the
Netherlands

Recaldent Chewing gum Calcium casein Anticariogenic Cadbury


peptonecalcium Adams, USA
phosphate

Bio PURE-GMP Whey protein k- casein f(106- Prevention of dental Davisco, USA
hydrolysate 169) caries, influence the
clotting of blood,
protection from
viruses and bacteria
ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION
• Membrane seperation
• Chromatography
• Nanostructure-Assisted Laser Desorption/ Ionization
(NALDI)
• Proteomics
• Bio informatics
APPLICATIONS
 Functional foods and nutrceuticals

 Packaging industry

 Pharmaceutical

 Cosmetics
CONCLUSION
 Bioactive peptides

 Effect on cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune


system, nervous system

 Need to develop novel technologies and to study


technological properties