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1. Know the definition of


2. Distinguish the
qualification of minerals.

3. Differentiate the
composition of minerals.

4. To learn the importance

of minerals.
What are Minerals?

- A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound,

usually of crystalline form and not produced by life

- A mineral has one specific chemical composition,

whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different
minerals or mineraloids.

- Minerals are the foundation of the

construction, manufacturing and agricultural
Qualification of Minerals

To meet the definition of "mineral" used by most
geologists, a substance must meet five requirements:

Naturally Occuring

means that people did not make it.

means that the substance is not made
by an organism.


means that it is not a liquid or a gas at

standard temperature and pressure.
Definite Chemical

means that all occurrences of that

mineral have a chemical composition that
varies within a specific limited range.

Ordered Internal

means that the atoms in a mineral are

arranged in a systematic and repeating
The Physical properties of minerals are used by Mineralogists to
help determine the identity of a specimen and are more
important in determining the potential industrial uses of the


- Most minerals have a distinctive color that

can be used for identification.

- In opaque minerals, the color tends to be more

consistent, so learning the colors associated with
these minerals can be very helpful in identification.

-Translucent to transparent minerals have a much more

varied degree of color due to the presence of trace
minerals. Therefore, color alone is not reliable as a
single identifying characteristic.

is the color of the mineral in

powdered form. Streak shows the
true color of the mineral.

In large solid form, trace minerals can

change the color appearance of a mineral
by reflecting the light in a certain way.

Is one of the better properties of

minerals to use for identifying a

Hardness is a measure of the

mineral’s resistance to scratching.

The Mohs scale is a set of 10 minerals

whose hardness is known. The softest
mineral, talc, has a Mohs scale rating of
Cleavage & Fracture

Fracture describes the quality of the cleavage


Minerals tend to break along lines or smooth

surfaces when hit sharply. Different minerals
break in different ways showing different types
of cleavage
Cleavage is defined using two sets of criteria.
The first set of criteria describes how easily the
cleavage is obtained. Cleavage is considered
perfect if it is easily obtained and the cleavage
planes are easily distinguished.
The second set of criteria is the direction of the
cleavage surfaces. The names correspond to the shape
formed by the cleavage surfaces: Cubic,
rhombohedral, octahedral, dodecahedral, basal or

The particular shape is determined by

the arrangement of the atoms, molecules
or ions that make up the crystal and
how they are joined. This is called the
crystal lattice.

Microcrystalline and cryptocrystalline

structures can only be viewed using high
Transparency or

Diaphaneity is a mineral’s degree of

transparency or ability to allow light
to pass through it.

The degree of transparency may

also depend on the thickness of the

Tenacity is the
characteristic that
describes how the
particles of a mineral hold
together or resist

Magnetism is the
characteristic that allows a
mineral to attract or repel
other magnetic materials.

is the property of minerals that indicates how

much the surface of a mineral reflects light.

Luster of a mineral is described in the following terms:

Metallic -the mineral is opaque and reflects light as a

metal would. Submettalic -the mineral is opaque and
dull. The mineral is dark colored.
Nonmettalic -the mineral does not reflect light like a
Nonmetallic minerals are described using modifiers that
refer to commonly known qualities.
Waxy -the mineral looks like paraffin or wax.Vitreous
The mineral looks like broken glass

Most minerals have no odor

unless they are acted upon
in one of the following ways:
moistened, heated, breathed
upon, or rubbed.

Only soluble minerals have a

taste, but it is very important
that minerals not be placed in the
mouth or on the tongue. You
should not test for this property
in the classroom.
Specific Gravity

Specific Gravity of a mineral is a

comparison or ratio of the weight of
the mineral to the weight of an
equal amount of water.

The weight of the equal amount of

water is found by finding the
difference between the weight of
the mineral in air and the weight of
the mineral in water.
We Use Minerals Every Day!

Every person uses products made

from minerals every day. The
salt that we add to our food is
the mineral halite. Antacid
tablets are made from the
mineral calcite.

It takes many minerals to make

something as simple as a wooden pencil.
The "lead" is made from graphite and
clay minerals, the brass band is made
of copper and zinc, and the paint that
colors it contains pigments and fillers
made from a variety of minerals.
• Essential for industrial and economic development of
• Copper, tin & iron ore were essential to the ancient
metal-using cultures of the Bronze & Iron Ages.
• Used in construction, engineering and chemical
• Railways, computers, cars, skyscrapers etc in modern
society depends upon the exploitation of mineral