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Convergence of EVs, Battery Storage

Delhi, 7th September, 2018


E-Mobility – Status and Next Steps
• About 5000 cars and 4 lakh other vehicles – 2W/ 3W

• Absence of charging infrastructure – Range Anxiety

• FAME-I intervention could not stimulate e-mobility – FAME-II to focus on charging


infrastructure and public/ shared mobility

• EESL’s programme of electrification of Government fleet – more than 15,000 demand


aggregated

• Charging infrastructure in offices being set up – Delhi, AP, Maharashtra, Jharkhand


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E-Mobility – Challenges
• Several states have issued e-mobility policy – Maharashtra, AP, Karnataka, etc – yet to take
off due to
• Lower range of cars in the market at present
• Absence of charging infrastructure
• Inadequate awareness of the economic viability as against IC engine cars

• High capital cost – low demand and insignificant production


• Present charging specifications rudimentary cannot drive e-mobility
• Higher specification chargers expensive and in the present economic viability does not
exist
• Regulations under MV Act do not allow quick introduction of new models – homologation
takes almost a year
• Battery costs are high and in the absence of demand – no domestic manufacturing
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E-Mobility – Opportunities
• Low running costs provide scalability in quick time – sales of vehicles (2W and 4W)
increased 400% between 2000 and 2015 – similar (if not more) growth expected till
2030
• Business of charging promises significant returns – estimated Rs. 42,000 crore by 2030
basis the projections by Government
• Immediate demand for 100 GWh of Battery can be generated – investments of $ 20-25b
• Investments in e-vehicle manufacturing – similar investments possible in the near term
• Localisation of components for batteries, cars, motors – drive the ecosystem for
reduction in costs and affordability
• Increased manufacturing could promote export markets – e-mobility being a growing
trend worldwide

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E-Mobility – Issues
• Fragmented regulatory responsibilities – amongst 5-6 government departments
• Non-fiscal incentives for setting up charging stations and vehicles – free parking in
government parking, mandatory installation of charging stations in new residential/
commercial buildings, etc
• Preparedness of cities for installation of charging infrastructure – upgradation of
existing distribution networks
• Safety standards of CEA vs Upgradation of distribution infrastructure for high capacity
charges vs Delicensing of charging?
• Role of private sector in setting up charging stations
• Battery swapping
• Cap on charging tariff to consumers
• Convergence – ancillary services market to tide over the short term.
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Ancillary Services - Requirement
Type Requirement (2017) Rationale
Primary reserves of 4 GW would be maintained on an All India basis
considering 4 GW generating station (UMPP) outage as a credible
Primary 4.0 GW
contingency. The same would be provided by generating units in line
with IEGC provisions.
Each region should maintain secondary reserve corresponding to the
Secondary 3.6 GW
largest unit size in the region
Tertiary reserves should be maintained in a de-centralized fashion by
Tertiary 7.0 GW each state control area for at least 50% of the largest generating unit
available in the state control area
Total 14.6 GW [~4.4% of total installed capacity, i.e., 334 GW]

• Estimated reserve requirement: 26 GW (2022) and 32 GW (2027)


• National Electricity Policy (NEP) mandates 5% reserves
• CERC is developing a discussion paper on ancillary services market
• Potential sources for reserves: Pumped hydro storage, gas turbine generators, coal-fired
generators, battery storage, AGC, FGMO, DSR
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Ancillary Services - Opportunities
• Installed base expected to be 25 GW by 2030 30
25
• Capacity market development to encourage capacity
markets like Short Term Operating Reserve (STOR) in UK 20
20

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• Investment opportunities in battery storage systems
10 8
• Value added services to grid 5

• Making storage based charging systems for EVs 0


0

commercially viable 2007 2012 2017 2022 2027 2032

Bulk Energy Grid Support Transmission & Consumer Energy


Services Services Distribution Support EV Charging

• Flattening of load • Frequency response • T&D infrastructure • Power quality • Electric vehicles
• Reserve power deferral
curve • Power reliability • Decentralised
• Voltage support • Transmission
• Arbitrage (time • Load following • Time shifting of storage
congestion relief
shifting of energy) • RE output smoothening energy • Insulation of EVs
• Distribution voltage
• Capacity supply • Minimise DSM/UI charges
support • Demand Response from Grid
• Mini grid
applications
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Ancillary Services - Issues
• CERC Regulations restrict market participation
• No guidelines for STOR and Capacity markets
• Storage based EV charging – coupled with STOR could provide commercially viable
services – enabling regulations could stimulate private sector investments
• Open specifications for charging and EVs could also promote V2G market – making EVs
more affordable
• TOD for charging could enable load balancing

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Thank You
For more information contact
skumar@eesl.co.in
www.eesl.co.in