Sunteți pe pagina 1din 105

CURICULUM VITAE

A. DATA DIRI

01. N a m a : Prof. Dr. H. Muris, M.Si


02. Tempat/Tanggal Lahir : Tinggas, 1965
03. Jenis Kelamin : Laki-laki
04. Fakultas/Jurusan : FMIPA/Fisika
05. Pangkat/Golongan/NIP : Lektor Kepala/IV/a/131925820
06. Bidang Keahlian : Fisika Material
07. Alamat Rumah : BTN Minasa Upa G20/14 Makassar.
90224.
Telp. (0411) 886307
HP. 081342403676
08. Alamat Kantor : Jurusan Fisika FMIPA UNM
Kampus Parangtambung Makassar
Tlp/Fax. (0411)840622, HP. 081342403676
09. e-mail : murisfmipaunm@yahoo.com

10. Riwayat Pendidikan Tinggi :

Jenis Pendidikan Tempat Tahun lulus Spesialisasi


Sarjana (S1) IKIP Ujung Pandang 1989 Pendidikan Fisika
Pra Magister (Pra S2) ITB Bandung 1992 Fisika
Magister (S2) ITB Bandung 1994 Fisika Material
Doktor (S3) Université de la Méditerranée 2001 Fisika Material
Marseille, Prancis

B. Riwayat Pekerjaan

1.Dosen Tetap Jurusan Fisika FMIPA Universitas Negeri Makassar, 1990 - sekarang.
2.Ketua Program Studi Fisika FMIPA Universitas Negeri Makassar, 2003 - 2004.
3.Pembantu Dekan Bidang Akademik FMIPA Universitas Negeri Makassar, 2004 - sekarang.
4.Dosen Program Pascasarjana UNM Makassar, 2006 - sekarang
Statistical Physics

Main Refereneces:
1. Introdution to Statistical Physics for Students
by Pointon Longman, England
2. Problem and Solution on Thermodynamics and Statistical
Mechanics, Yung Kuo Lim, World Scientific Singapore

Additional References :
Solid States Physics Textbook, Quantum Physics and Modern
Physics Texbooks Related with Statistical Physics.
Some e-books dowloanded from internet
Main Topics

1. Introduction (Including Probability Theory)


2. Maxwell Boltzmann Statistics
3. Application of Maxwell Boltzmann Statistics
4. Bose Einstein Statistics
5. Fermi Dirac Statistics
6. Temperatur and Entropy
7. Application of Thermodynamis Statistics
8. Canonical Ensemble
9. Grand Canonical Ensemble
10. Special Topics (Assignemets)
Basic Ideas/Terminology

• Macrostates : Another words for the thermodynamics state of


the system.
• Microstates : The most detailed specification of assembly that
can be imagined.

Microstate Macrostate

Statistical
Physics
Basic Ideas/Terminology

• Averaging Postulate : All accessible microstates are equally


probable
Independent events

Example:
What is the probability of
rolling two sixes?
Classical probabilities:

p6  1
6
Two sixes:

p6,6  16  16  1
36

•Truly independent events always satisfy this property.


•In general, probability of occurrence of r independent
events is:
p  p1  p2  ........  pr
Statistical distributions
6 7 8 9 10
ni

xi
Mean: x
 nx
i
,
i i
where N   i ni
N
Statistical distributions

16
ni N  

xi
ni
Mean: x   i pi xi , where pi  lim
N  N
Statistical distributions

16
ni

xi
Standard   x    p x  x
2 2
i i i
deviation
Statistical distributions

Gaussian distribution
(Bell curve)

 x  x 
 2
1 
p( x )  exp   
 2 
 2 
2

Probabality Theory

Sample Space : A set of all mutually exclusive outcomes


`
Probability Theories
Methods of Counting
Permutation and Combination
Sequences considered : Distinguishable object

Neglecting the sequences : Indistinguishable object


Fundamental Statistics

Mean
Mode
Median
Varians
Mean

Example, set of variables : 3,4,4,3,5,3,4

3  4  4  3  6  3  5 28
X  4
7 7

x1  x2  x3  x4  x5  x6  x7
X
7

x i
X  i

N
Mean

Mean with probability function


xi f f(xi) xi f(xi)
3 3 3/7 9/7
4 3 3/7 12/7
5 1 1/7 5/7
7 1 28/7 = 4

We have the same mean value : 4


Probability Function

continuous
We can expand the formula for mean

 f .( x ).x
 f (x )  1
i i
  f ( x ). x
discrete
X i


i
i i
f ( x ) i i
i


If it’s function is continue : X   x. f ( x)dx


How you interpret these statistic functions ?


Continuous Distribution

If ∆x → 0, i.e f(x) is continuum function


Fundamental Statistics
Gaussian Function

Some of distribution function in statistical physics follow the


Gaussian Function/Gaussian distribution.
Euclid Space and Phase Space

Euclid Space

dV  dxdydz

dV
z

y dz
x dx
dy
Euclid Space and Phase Space

p x2  p y2  p z2
 
2m

d  dxdydzdpx dp y dp z
Space Space Momentum Space

d6 N  dx1 dy1 dz1 dp x1 dp y1 dp z1


........dxi dyi dz i dp xi dp yi dp zi
........dx N dy N dz N dp xN dp yN dp zn
N
  dxi dyi dz i dp xi dp yi dp zi
i 1
N
  d i
i 1
Averaging of Assembly Properties

Consider in assembly contains with N molecules with total energy E


in a volume V.
p(N) : momentum coordinates
x(N) : position cordinates

p(N)

x(N)
Averaging of Assembly Properties

If X are some property of an assembly lies in element volume dГ6N


then average of this property :

X   X x( N ), p( N )Px( N ), p( N )d


6 N
6N

If the probability are normalized, then

 X x( N ), p( N )Px( N ), p( N )d


6 N
6N

X
 Px( N ), p( N )d
6 N
6N
Property Average of Assembly

If X is a discrete function, we can express the averaging of X as :

pX i i
X i

p i
i

Normalization of probability yields


p
i
i 1

X   pi X i
i
Classical and Quantum Assembly

a. Classical Assembly
- Distinguishble
- Continum energies
- Obey the Pauli exclusion principle

b. Quantum Assembly : There are two types


Tipe I (fermion) :
- Tak terbedakan antara satu dengan lainnya (indistinguishable)
- Energi disktrit
- Memenuhi prinsip larangan Pauli
Misalnya : elektron dalam zat padat
Assembli Klasik dan Kuantum

b. Kuantum : Terdapat dua tipe


Tipe II (boson) :
- Tak terbedakan antara satu dengan lainnya (indistinguishable)
- Energi disktrit
- Tidak memenuhi prinsip larangan Pauli
Misalnya : foton atau partikel alpha
Statistik Maxwell - Boltzmann

Distribusi Energi

Misalkan dalam sistim yang ditinjau terdapat N sistim :


Sistem 1 dengan energi ε1
Sistem 2 dengan energi ε2
…………………….

Sistem i dengan energi εi

…………………….
Sistem N dengan energi εN
Statistik Maxwell Boltzmann

Distribusi Energi

Misalkan dalam sistim yang ditinjau terdapat N sistim :


Sistem 1 dengan energi ε1
Sistem 2 dengan energi ε2
…………………….

Sistem i dengan energi εi

…………………….
Sistem N dengan energi εN
Statistik Maxwell Boltzmann

Prinsip Kekekalan
Statistik Maxwell Boltzmann

Jumlah pilihan jika memilih sejumlah N1 di antara N partikel

Jika g1 menyatakan bobot, maka jumlah pilihan yang ada adalah :


Statistik Maxwell Boltzmann

Perluas lagi dengan mengambil sejumlah N2 dari N-N1

Perluas lagi dengan mengambil sampai n kali


Statistik Maxwell Boltzmann

Secara umum dapat ditulis :


Contoh Pemakaian

Empat partikel dengan notasi a,b,c dan d didistribusi pada dua pita energi, 2 pada pita 1 dan 2
pada sistim 2. Bobot masing-masing adalah 3 dan 4.

Jadi : N1 = N2 = 2 g1 = 3 , g2 = 4

N!
W  g12 .g 22
N 1!.N 2 !

4!
W   3 2.4 2  864
2 !.2!
Contoh Pemakaian

Ini hanyalah 3 contoh gambar dari 864 kemungkinan yang ada.


Sekarang adalah giliran anda untuk melengkapinya.
Statistik Maxwell Boltzmann

Peluang terbesar diperoleh dengan mengambil dw/dn = 0

Rumus Stirling
Distribusi Maxwell Boltzmann

2N
n( )d  e  / kT  1 / 2 d
kT 3 / 2

   g() P()
exp    g    C 
 B 
k T
 =
0  0  0 
Aplikasi Statistik Maxwell Boltzmann

Apabila energi sistem dalam suatu assembly berbentuk kuadratik terhadap posisi
dan koordinat momentum, maka kontribusi energi rata-rata akan menjadi ½ kT,
dimana T adalah temperatur assembly.

p d
2 e / KT
x / 2me
 


 e / kT
e dT

dimana ε adalah energi total. Dengan mengambil energi dalam dua bentuk yaitu
2  Px 2
. Kedua bentuk ini independent terhadap Px,
Px dan   
2m
 2m 
sehingga persamaan di atas dapat ditulis :
Aplikasi Statistik Maxwell Boltzmann
ky Untuk partikel kuantum dalam kotak 2D (e.g., electron pd FET):
2D nx n y
k kx  ky  k  kx  k y
2 2

Lx Ly
kx 1  k2 k 2 area  k2 1 2m
N k    G k   G   
4   4 4 4  2

Lx Ly
# states within ¼ of g 2 D   
2s  1 m - Tak
 2  2 bergantung pd 
a circle of radius k
Lx

1 4 / 3 k 3 k 3 volume 1  2m 


3/ 2
k3
3D N k    G k   G     
kz 8    6 2 6 2 6 2  2 
Lx Ly Lz
g()
3D

g 3D 2s  1  2m 
   2  2   1/ 2
3/ 2
2D
kx 4  
ky 1D

3/ 2
1  2m 
g 3D    2  2   1/ 2
Thus, for 3D electrons
(2s+1=2): 2   
Distribusi Kecepatan Maxwell
" volume" v  v  dv 
3/ 2
 m   mv2  vy
f v  fv    exp    4v 2 dv
 2 k BT   2 k BT   4v 2 dv
Nampak bahwa persamaan ini merupakan perkalian v
antara faktor Boltzmann dengan sebuah tetapan.
Tetapan tersebut dapat diperoleh dari normalisasi vx
 3/ 2
 m 
 f v dv  1
vz
C   
0  2 k B 
T P(v)

  
dN    NP d  N exp   d
 k BT 
Distribusi energi, N – the total # of particles
3/ 2
 m   mv 2 
dN v   NPv  dv  N   4v exp  
2
 dv
 2 k B 
T  2 k B 
T
v
speed distribution (distribusi kecepatan) P(vx)
1/ 2
 m   mv 2 
dN v x   NPv x  dv  N   exp    dv
 2 k B 
T  2 k B 
T
Distrbusi kecepatan dalam arah x, vx vx
Karakteristik Nilai Kecepatan
3/ 2
 m   mv 2  Lihat bahwa distribusi ini tidak simetrik, sehingga
Pv     4v exp  
2

 2 k BT 
perlu dicari perata-rataan sebagai berikut
 2 k BT 

P(v)
Root-mean-square speed ( Pangkat dua rata
rata akar kecepatan ) is sebanding dengan akar
pangkat dua energi rata-rata.

mvrms 
1 2E 3k BT
E vrms  
2

2 m m
vmax v vrms v

 dPv  2 k BT
Harga kec.maksimum :
 dv   0  v max 
v  vmax m


 m   mv2 
v   v  Pv  dv  
8k BT
Kelajuan rata-rata :  4v exp  
3
dv 
0  2 k BT  0  2k BT  m

vmax  v  vrms  2  8 /   3  1 1.13 1.22


Soal (Maxwell distr.)
Consider a mixture of Hydrogen and Helium at T=300 K. Find the speed at which
the Maxwell distributions for these gases have the same value.

3/ 2
 m   mv2 
Pv, T , m     4v exp  
2

 2 k B 
T  2 k B 
T
3/ 2 3/ 2
 m1   m1v 2   m2   m2 v 2 
  4v exp  
2
    4v exp  
2

 2 k BT   2k BT   2 k BT   2 k BT 

3 m1v 2 3 m2v 2
ln m1   ln m2 
2 2k BT 2 2k BT

m1
3k BT ln
v2 3 1.38 10 23  300  ln 2
3 m1
ln  m1  m2  v
m2
  1.6 km/s
2 m2 2k BT m1  m2  2 1.7 10  27
Soal (Maxwell distr.)
Find the temperature at which the number of molecules in an ideal Boltzmann gas
with the values of speed within the range v - v+dv is a maximum.

Pv, T 
3/ 2
 m   mv2 
Pv, T , m     4v exp  
2
 maximum: 0
 2 k B 
T  2 k B 
T T

1/ 2 3/ 2
3 m   m   mv2   m   mv2  mv2 
     exp  
2 
    exp    0
2 
2  2 k BT   2 k BT   2k BT   2 k BT   2k BT  2k BT 

3  mv2  mv2
    0 T
2  2k BT  3k B

At home:

Find the temperature T at which the rms speed of Hydrogen molecules exceeds their
most probable speed by 400 m/s.

Answer: 380K
Pelebaran Garis Spektrum Doppler

Bagian ini adalah salah satu contoh penerapan distribusi laju dari
statistik Maxwell Boltzmann, yakni pelebaran spektrum akibat efek
Doppler.
Misalkan molekul gas melakukan radiasi dengan panjang
gelombang λ dalam arah x dengan kecepatan vx menuju kepada
seorang pengamat. Pengamat akan menerima radiasi dengan
panjang gelombang.
o

Pelebaran Garis Spektrum Doppler

Karena efek Doppler, maka panjang gelombang yang diamati


pengamat adalah :

 vx 
   o 1  
 c 

co   
v
o
c
dv x   d
o
o

Pelebaran Garis Spektrum Doppler

Dari distribusi Maxwell Boltzamann


3/ 2
 m   mv2 
dN v   Nf v  dv  N   4v exp  
2
 dv
 2 k B 
T  2 k B 
T

Ubah sebagai fungsi panjang gelombang

 mc2   o 2  c
3/ 2
 m 
f  d    exp    d
 2 k BT   2k BT o  o
2
o

Pelebaran Garis Spektrum Doppler

Intensitas radiasi :
 mc 2   o 2 
I  d  Cf ( )d  I o  exp    d
 2 k BT o 
2

I (o ) Dengan mengukur intensitas


I ( ) radiasi maka dapat ditentukan
temperatur gas emisi


o
Prinsip Ekipartisi Energi

Jika energi sistem dinyatakan dalam bentuk kuadrat posisi dan momentum maka tiap
bentuk kuadrat tersebut akan memberikan energi rata-rata ½ kT
Contoh molekul gas dengan massa m, energinya dapat dinyatakan dengan

p x2
x 
2m

Maka energi rata-ratanya adalah :

 x d
2 e / KT
p / 2 m e
 


 e / kT
e dT

Prinsip Ekipartisi Energi

p x2
Nyatakan energi sebagai 2m dan
x
p x2 px2
 exp  (  ) / kT dxdydzdp y dp z   exp(  p 2
x / 2mkT)dp x
2m 2m
x  

 exp  ( p x2
2 m ) / kT dxdydzdp y dp x x 
exp(  p 2
x / 2mkT)dp x

2
Misalkan
p x= u2 maka
2mkT


u 2
2
kT e u du
x  

e
u 2
du

Prinsip Ekipartisi Energi

 

Hasilnya memberikan : e
u 2
u du   e du
u2
2 1
2
 

px2
1 u
Maka : x  kT 2mkT
2

Karena ada satu bentuk kuadrat maka memberikan energi rata-rata ½ kT


Contoh 2 : Osilator harmonik dengan dua jenis energi

p x2 1 2
x   x
2m 2
Prinsip Ekipartisi Energi

Maka :
 2
 p / 2m  x e
1 2 e / kT
 
 x 2
d
x 
  e d
 e / kT

 
  p x2 1 2  
 2 1 2

 px  2 x exp   2m  2 x  / kT dxdpx
 
x   
  p x2 1 2  
exp   2m  2 x kT dxdpx

Ubah ke koordinat polar :

p x2 1 2
x  r 2 cos 2 
 r 2 sin 2  , 2
2m

dp x dp y  2(m /  ) rdrd
1
2
Prinsip Ekipartisi Energi

Maka :
2x 

 

2
r / kT
d e r 3 dr
 0
2x
0

 kT
 
 r 2
/ kT
d e rdr
0 0

Karena terdiri dari dua bentuk kuadrat maka energinya adalah


2 x ½ kT = kT

Untuk osilator harmonik 3D maka :


 p 2 p y2 p 2  1 1 1 3
  x   x   kT  kT  kT  kT
 2m 2m 2m  2 2 2 2
3
 kT
2
Prinsip Ekipartisi Energi

Energi rata-rata untuk osilator harmonik 3 D.

 p x2 1 p 2
1 p x2 1 
2
   1 x   2 y   3 z 
2 y 2

 2m 2 2m 2 2m 2 
1
 6. kT
2
 3kT

Jadi dalam hal ini ada 6 derajat kebebasan ( f = 6) dimana tiap


derajat kebebasan memberikan kontribusi energi sebesar ½ kT
Prinsip Ekipartisi Energi

Jika terdapat NA (bil. Avogadro) molekul gas dan berlaku sebagai


osilator harmonik 3D, maka, terdapat 6 derajat kebebasan,maka :
1
E  6 N A kT  3RT
2
Panas jenis per gram atom zat padat :

 E 
   3R  5,94 kal/ o
K/gr.atom
 T v
Panas jenis gas

Jika terdapat NA (bil. Avogadro) molekul gas dan berlaku sebagai


osilator harmonik 3D, maka, terdapat 6 derajat kebebasan,maka :
1
E  6 N A kT  3RT
2
Panas jenis per gram atom zat padat :

 E 
   3R  5,94 kal/ o
K/gr.atom
 T v
STATISTIK BOSE-EINSTEIN

g s g s  1  ns !

g s g s  1  ns !
ws 
g s  1!ns !

g s  1  ns !
g s  1!ns !

w   ws
s
STATISTIK BOSE-EINSTEIN


g s  1  ns !
s g s  1!ns !

w   ws
s
STATISTIK BOSE-EINSTEIN

  log w 
s  n
  x   
s dn s  0
 s 

 log w
 x   s  0
n s

log w   log ws
s

  g s  1  ns  log g s  1  n s   g s  1 log g s  1  ns log ns 


s
STATISTIK BOSE-EINSTEIN

 log w
 log g s  1  n s   log n s
n s

 log w  g  ns 
 log  s 
ns  ns 

 g  ns 
log  s   x   s  0
 ns 

gs
 e  x   s   1
ns
STATISTIK BOSE-EINSTEIN

gs
ns 
e  x   s   1

gs
ns 
1  s / kT 1
e
A

gs!
ws 
ns !g s  ns !
STATISTIK BOSE-EINSTEIN

gs
ns 
e  x   s   1

gs
ns 
1  s / kT 1
e
A

gs!
ws 
ns !g s  ns !
STATISTIK BOSE-EINSTEIN
STATISTIK FERMI-DIRAC

W   ws
s

gs!
ws 
ns !g s  ns !
Jumlah untuk semua kemungkinan susunan
yang berbeda untuk satu tingkatan energi

gs!
W  Jumlah untuk semua kemungkinan susunan
s n s ! g s  n s ! yang berbeda
STATISTIK FERMI-DIRAC

gs!
log W   log
s ns !g s  ns !
  g s log g s  ns log ns  g s  ns  log g s  ns 
s

  log W 
s  n    s dns  0 Gunakan rumus Stirling
 s 

 log W
   s  0
n s
STATISTIK FERMI-DIRAC

 log W g s  ns
 log
ns ns

g s  ns
log    s  0
ns

gs      s  
e 1
ns
STATISTIK FERMI-DIRAC

~ kBT

f   
1
e F kT  1

nd  f g d 

F 0, f  


1
T=0 1
e   1

F 0, f  


1
0
e  1
=
(with respect to )
STATISTIK FERMI-DIRAC

gs
ns   Distribusi jumlah partikel partikel
e    s   1

Melalui normalisasi gs = 1 diperoleh


f   
1
e F kT  1 fungsi distribusi. Maka f(e) merupakan
probabilitas sebagai fungsi energi

Sebagai fungsi probabilitas maka harga fungsi ini maksimum 1


dan minimum 0
Perhitungan jumlah keadaan mikro dalam suatu keadaan makro
1. Pada suatu tingkat energi tertentu terdapat tiga buah status, dan
empat buah boson. Berapa carakah yang mungkin mengisikan boson
ke dalam status-status itu ?
Solusi : Masalah ini dapat diselesaikan dengan cara melukiskan
status dengan kotak, boson dengan titik. Berdasarkan
spesifikasi yang telah diberikan sebuah kotak dapat berisi
sebuah, dua buah, tiga buah, empat buah titik atau kosong.
Maka pengisian dapat dilakukan :
nampaknya ada 15 cara yang mungkin.
Gunakan persamaan yang sesuai dengan gs = 3, ns = 4, maka :

W 
3  1  4 !
 15 cara
3  1!4!
Radiasi Benda Hitam

Two types of bosons:

(a) Composite particles which contain an even


number of fermions. These number of these
particles is conserved if the energy does not
exceed the dissociation energy (~ MeV in the
case of the nucleus).

(b) particles associated with a field, of which the


most important example is the photon. These
particles are not conserved: if the total
energy of the field changes, particles appear
and disappear. We’ll see that the chemical
potential of such particles is zero in
equilibrium, regardless of density.
Radiation in Equilibrium with Matter
Typically, radiation emitted by a hot body, or from a laser is not in equilibrium: energy
is flowing outwards and must be replenished from some source. The first step towards
understanding of radiation being in equilibrium with matter was made by Kirchhoff,
who considered a cavity filled with radiation, the walls can be regarded as a heat
bath for radiation.
The walls emit and absorb e.-m. waves. In equilibrium, the walls and radiation must
have the same temperature T. The energy of radiation is spread over a range of
frequencies, and we define uS (,T) d as the energy density (per unit volume) of the
radiation with frequencies between  and +d. uS(,T) is the spectral energy density.
The internal energy of the photon gas: 
u T    uS  , T  d
0
In equilibrium, uS (,T) is the same everywhere in the cavity, and is a function of
frequency and temperature only. If the cavity volume increases at T=const, the
internal energy U = u (T) V also increases. The essential difference between the
photon gas and the ideal gas of molecules: for an ideal gas, an isothermal expansion
would conserve the gas energy, whereas for the photon gas, it is the energy density
which is unchanged, the number of photons is not conserved, but proportional to
volume in an isothermal change.
A real surface absorbs only a fraction of the radiation falling on it. The absorptivity 
is a function of  and T; a surface for which ( ) =1 for all frequencies is called a
black body.
Photons Apa Itu ?
The electromagnetic field has an infinite number of modes (standing
waves) in the cavity. Any radiation field is a superposition of plane T
waves of different frequencies. The characteristic feature of the
radiation is that a mode may be excited only in units of the quantum
of energy hf (similar to a harmonic oscillators) :
  ni  1 / 2 h
i

This fact leads to the concept of photons as quanta of the electromagnetic field. The
state of the el.-mag. field is specified by the number n for each of the modes, or, in other
words, by enumerating the number of photons with each frequency.

According to the quantum theory of radiation, photons are massless E ph  h


bosons of spin 1 (in units ħ). They move with the speed of light :
E ph  cp ph
The linearity of Maxwell equations implies that the photons do not E ph 
interact with each other. (Non-linear optical phenomena are p ph  h
observed when a large-intensity radiation interacts with matter).
c c

Presence of a small amount of matter is essential for establishing equilibrium in the


photon gas. We’ll treat a system of photons as an ideal photon gas, and, in particular,
we’ll apply the BE statistics to this system.

The mechanism of establishing equilibrium in a photon gas is absorption and emission


of photons by matter.
Potensial Kimia Foton = 0
The mechanism of establishing equilibrium in a photon gas is absorption F 
and emission of photons by matter. The textbook suggests that N can be    0
  N T ,V
found from the equilibrium condition:

F  Thus, in equilibrium, the chemical


On the other hand,     ph  ph  0
  N T ,V
potential for a photon gas is zero:

However, we cannot use the usual expression for the chemical potential, because one
cannot increase N (i.e., add photons to the system) at constant volume and at the same
time keep the temperature constant: F 
  - does not exist for the photon gas
  N T ,V

G  N  F  F T ,V 
Instead, we can use G  F  PV P    
 V T V
- by increasing the volume at T=const, we proportionally scale F

F - the Gibbs free energy of an G


Thus, GF V 0  ph  0
V equilibrium photon gas is 0 ! N
For  = 0, the BE distribution reduces to the Planck’s distribution:

n ph  f ph  , T  
1 1 Planck’s distribution provides the average

    h 
exp    1 exp    1 number of photons in a single mode of
 B 
k T  k BT  frequency  = /h.
h
  n h 
The average energy in the mode:  h 
exp    1
In the classical (high temperature) limit:   k BT  B 
k T

In order to calculate the average number of photons per small energy interval d, the
average energy of photons per small energy interval d, etc., as well as the total
average number of photons in a photon gas and its total energy, we need to know the
density of states for photons as a function of photon energy.

kz Rapat Keadaan Foton

1 4 / 3 k 3 k 3 volume k3
N k    G k  
8    6 2 6 2
kx
Lx Ly Lz

ky dG  3 2
g      cp  ck G   g 3D
  
d 6  2 c  2  2 c 
3 ph 3

extra factor of 2:
g    g  
3D 3D d 
h 2
h  8 2
2
 3
3D 8 2
g    3
two polarizations d  c 
ph ph 3 ph
c c
Spektrum Radiasi Benda Hitam
Rata-rata jumlah foton per satuan volume denga frekwensi  dan +d:

8 h 3
g   f  d  uS  , T d us  , T   h g   f    3
c exp  h   1

- Rapat Spektrum (hukum Radiasi Planck)

d
u adalah fungsi energi: u  , T d  u  , T d u  , T   u  , T   u h , T  h
d

8 3
Radiasi spektrum u  , T  
benda hitam hc 3 exp 
  
  1
 B 
k T

u(,T) - adalah rapat energi per satuan


energi foton gas dalam kesetimbangan
dengan benda hitam pada temperatur T.
Pendekatan Klasik (f kecil ,  besar), Hkm Rayleigh-Jeans

Pd frekwensi rendah dan temp. tinggi  h  1 exp  h  1   h

8 h 3 8  2
us  , T   3
- Hasil secara klasik (no h), dapat
 3 k BT
c exp  h   1 c diperoleh langsung dari ekipartisi

Hukum Rayleigh-Jeans

Persamaan ini memprediksi apa


yang dinamakan dengan
ultraviolet catastrophe – bencana
ultra ungu, energi tak berhingga
yang dipancarkan pada frekwensi
tinggi atau panjang gelombang
pendek (kecil)
Hukum Rayleigh-Jeans
u sebagai fungsi dari panjang gelombang
3
 c
h 
 d hc  8    hc  8 hc
u  , T d  u  , T d   1
 d   u  , T    
2  hc 3 exp  hc   1  2  5 exp  hc   1
k T  k T 
 B   B 

Dalam daerah dengan  besar :

8 k BT
u  , T  large   1
4
4
 frekwensi tinggi , Hukum Pergeseran Wien’s

Pada frekwensi tinggi :  h  1 exp  h  1  exp  h 


8 h 3
u s  , T    exp   h  - Ditemukan secara eksperimen oleh Wien Wien
c3
Nobel 1911

Maksimum u() berfeser ke frekwensi tinggi ketika temperatur naik.

  h 3 
   
du d   k BT    3x 2 x 3e x 
 const   const   x  2
0
 max  2.8
k BT d  h  
d 
 h  
  exp    1  e  1 x

e  1 
h  k BT    k BT  

3  x e x  3  x  2.8
h max Hukum
 2 .8 Pergeseran
k BT
u(,T)

Wien
- the “most likely” frequency of a photon in a
blackbody radiation with temperature T
Numerous applications
(e.g., non-contact radiation thermometry)

max  max
h max
u , T  u , T   2.8 - does this mean that
k BT
hc
 2.8 ? Wrong!
 max max k BT max
3
 c
h 
 d hc  8    hc  8 hc
u  , T d  u  , T d   1
 d   u  , T    
2  hc 3 exp  hc   1  2  5 exp  hc   1
k T  k T 
 B   B 
du d 
 const   5
1  
 const   6
5 
 5

 x 2 exp 1 / x  
0
 2
df dx  x exp 1 / x   1  x exp 1 / x   1 x exp 1 / x   1 

5xexp 1/ x 1  exp 1/ x


hc
 max 
5 k BT

T = 300 K  max  10 m

“night vision” devices


Radiasi Sinar Matahari
hc
Temperatur permukaan- 5800K max   0.5 m
5 k BT

As a function of energy, the spectrum of sunlight peaks at a photon energy of

umax  h max  2.8k BT  1.4 eV   (umax)  0.88 m, near infrared

- close to the energy gap in Si, 1.2 eV,


which has been so far the best material
for photovoltaic devices (solar cells)

Spectral sensitivity of the eye:


Hukum Radiasi Stefan-Boltzmann
Jumlah total foton persatuan volume :
  3
8 2 8
3
 k BT  x 2 dx  kB  3
n    n  g  d  3
N
V 0 c 0  h 
d 
c3

 h 
 0 e x  1  hc  T  2.4
 8
exp    1
 k BT  - increases as T 3

Energi total foton per satuan volume : (apat   g  



8 5 k BT 
4
uT    
U
d 
energi gas foton)
V 0 exp    1 15hc 
3

2 5 k B
4
Tetapan Stefan-Boltzmann 4 4 Hukum Stefan-
 u T   T Boltzmann
15h 3c 2 c

Energi rata-rata per foton :

uT  8 5 k BT  hc  4
4 3
   k BT  2.7 k BT
15hc  8 k BT   2.4 
3 3
N 15 2.4

(just slightly less than the “most”


probable energy)
Daya yang dipancarkan oleh Benda Hitam

Untuk gerak arah “uni-directional”, fluks energi per satuan luas  c u

energy density u

1m2
c  1s
Integrasi ke semua sudut kalikan fktor ¼:
1
power emitted by unit area  cu
4
(ukuran lubang >> panjang gelombang)

Jadi, daya yang dipancarkan per satuan c 4 4


power  u T   
c
luas permukaan pada T dalam semua
T  T4
4 4 c
arah :
Daya total yang dipancarkan oleh
bola berjejariR:

total power emitted by a sphere  4R 2 T 4


T
4 4
Beberapa Contoh u T   T
c
The value of the Stefan-Boltzmann constant:   5.76 108 W / K 4 m2 

Consider a human body at 310K. The power emitted by the body:  T 4  500 W / m2
While the emissivity of skin is considerably less than 1, it emits sufficient infrared
radiation to be easily detectable by modern techniques (night vision).

Radiative transfer:
Liquid nitrogen is stored in a vacuum or Dewar flask, a container surrounded by a thin
evacuated jacket. While the thermal conductivity of gas at very low pressure is small, energy
can still be transferred by radiation. Both surfaces, cold and warm, radiate at a rate:

J rad  1  r  Ti
4 i=a for the outer (hot) wall, i=b for the inner (cold) wall,
W / m2
r – the coefficient of reflection, (1-r) – the coefficient of emission
Let the total ingoing flux be J, and the total outgoing flux be J’:
Dewar
J  1  r  Ta4  rJ  J   1  r  Tb4  rJ
1 r
The net ingoing flux: J  J 
1 r

 Ta4  Tb4 
If r=0.98 (walls are covered with silver mirror), the net flux is reduced to
1% of the value it would have if the surfaces were black bodies (r=0).
Efek Rumah Kaca
Absorption:
 
2
4 R 
Power in    RE  TSun   Sun 
2

 Rorbit 
the flux of the solar radiation energy
received by the Earth ~ 1370 W/m2
Power out  4 RE  TE
2 4
Emission:

1/ 4
  R  2 
TE    Sun   TSun
 4  Rorbit  

Rorbit = 1.5·1011 m
Transmittance of the Earth atmosphere RSun = 7·108 m

 = 1 – TEarth = 280K However, in reality  = 0.7 – TEarth = 256K

To maintain a comfortable temperature on the Earth, we need the Greenhouse Effect !


The complicated issue of global worming: adding CO2 (and other “greenhouse” gases)
to the atmosphere tends in itself to raise the earth’s average temperature, but also may
increase cloudiness, which lowers it. One thing is clear: since climate is largely
determined by the heat balance in the atmosphere, anything that changes the
atmospheric absorption is bound to have climatic consequences.
Pengurangan Massa Matahari
The spectrum of the Sun radiation is close to the black body spectrum with the
maximum at a wavelength  = 0.5 m. Find the mass loss for the Sun in one second.
How long it takes for the Sun to loose 1% of its mass due to radiation? Radius of the
Sun: 7·108 m, mass - 2 ·1030 kg.
hc hc  6.6 1034  3 108 
max = 0.5 m  max   T   K  5,740 K 
5 k BT 5 k B max  23
 5 1.38 10  0.5 10
6

2 5 k B
4

P power emitted by a sphere   4R 2 T 4


W
  5.7  10 8

15h 3c 2 m2K 4

This result is consistent with the flux of the solar radiation energy received by the Earth
(1370 W/m2) being multiplied by the area of a sphere with radius 1.5·1011 m (Sun-Earth
distance).
4
 
P  4 RSun   
2 hc
 2

  4 7 108 m  5.7 10 8 2 4  5,740K 4  3.8 10 26 W
W
 2.8 k B max  mK

dm P 3.8 1026 W
the mass loss per one second  2   4.2  10 9
kg/s
dt c 
3 10 m
8 2

1% of Sun’s mass will be lost in 0.01M 2 1028 kg
t    4.7 1018 s  1.5 1011 yr
dm / dt 4.2 10 kg/s
9
Fungsi Distribusi untuk gas Fermi Ideal
The probability of the i-state with energy i to be occupied  n   ni 
P i , ni  
1
by ni particles (the total energy of this state ni i) :
exp   i i 
Z  k BT 
The grand partition function for all particles in the ith single-  n    
particle state (the sum is taken over all possible values of ni) : Z i   exp  i i 
ni  k BT 
If the particles are fermions, n can only be 0 or 1:    
Z i  1  exp   
The mean number of particles in this state:  k B T 
   
exp   
ni   ni Pni   0  P0  1 P1   k BT   1
      
1  exp    1  exp  
ni

 k B T   B 
k T
n   
1
- the Fermi-Dirac ~ kBT
   distribution
exp    1
 k BT 

At T = 0, all the states with  <  have the average #


of particles 1 (i.e., they are occupied with 100%
probability), all the states with  >  have the average
# of particles 0 (i.e., they are unoccupied). With T=0
increasing T, the step-like function is “smeared” over
the energy range ~ kBT.
(with respect to ) =
Fungsi Distribusi Gas Bose Ideal
The grand partition function for all particles in the  n    
ith single-particle state: Z i   exp  i i 
(the sum is taken over the possible values of ni) ni  k BT 

If the particles are bosons,     2     3   


n can any integer  0: Z i  1  exp    exp     exp    ....
 k BT   k BT   k BT 
2 3
               1
Z i  1  exp  
  exp    
   exp   
  .... 
 k BT    k BT     k BT     
1  exp  
 k BT 
   
ni   ni Pni   0  P0   1 P 1  2  P2   ...   x  
The mean ni  k B T 
number of
 n     
particles in this exp  i
 k BT   1 Z
exp  ni x   
1
state:   ni  
ni Z Z ni x Z x

ni   
1
1 Z x   1  e x
 1  e  
1
ni        
Distribusi Bose
Z x x  1  e x  1  e x e x  1 exp    1 Einstein
 k BT 
The mean number of particles in a given state for the BEG can exceed unity, it diverges as
  , and is nonexistent for  > .
Probabilitas, Fungsi Distribusi, Rapat Keadaan ….

 The probability that the system is in state s


with energy E and N particles
U(x)
    T ni 
P i  
1
exp  i  1  P E   1
x
Z  k BT  s

The macrostate of such system is completely defined if


we know the mean occupancy for all energy levels,
which is often called the distribution function:

f E   n E 

While f(E) is often less than unity (much less in the case of an ideal gas), it is not a
probability. (e.g., it can exceed unity in a Bose gas).

 f E   n
i
where n=N/V – the density of particles


where g() is the
If we can neglect the
spectrum discreteness:
n   g   f  d density of states
0
Kaitan Termodinamika, Potensial Kimia
Consider the grand potential   kBT ln Z which is a generalization of F=-kBT lnZ

d   SdT  PdV  Nd

- the appearance of μ as a variable, while computationally very convenient for the grand
canonical ensemble, is not natural. Thermodynamic properties of systems are
eventually measured with a given density of particles. However, in the grand canonical
ensemble, quantities like pressure or N are given as functions of the “natural” variables
T,V and μ. Thus, we need to use  /  T ,V   N to eliminate μ in terms of T and
n=N/V.

 S   U   F 
 n, T   T      
 N U ,V  N  S ,V  N T ,V

μ for an ideal gas is negative: when you add a


Boltzmann   nQ  particle to a system and want to keep S fixed, you
Boltzmann   k BT ln    0
Gas  n  typically have to remove some energy from the
system.

   
MB < 0: - the occupancy nB  exp   cannot be negative for any 
 B 
k T
Potensial Kimia untuk Gas Fermi
g  
 
nF    f F   
1
Fermi
   n   g   f   d   d
Gas exp    1     T , n  
0 0
exp    1
 B 
k T
 k B T 
 T ,V , N   n  N / V    T , n
When the average number of fermions in a system (their density) is known, this equation
can be considered as an implicit integral equation for (T,n). It also shows that 
determines the mean number of particles in the system just as T determines the mean
energy. However, solving the eq. is a non-trivial task.
 /EF
 2 2
  k BT  depending on n and T,  for 1
 1    .... fermions may be either
EF 12  EF  positive or negative. 1 kBT/EF

The limit T0: adding one fermion to the system at T=0 increases its energy U by EF. In
this situation F = U-TS = U (S is also 0: all the fermions are packed into the lowest-energy
states), so that the chemical potential, which is the change in F produced by the addition
of one particle, is EF:  T  0  E F

The change of sign of (n,T) indicates the crossover from the


3/ 2
n 4  EF 
degenerate Fermi system (low T, high n) to the Boltzmann statistics.   
nQ 3   k BT 
The condition kBT << EF is equivalent to n >> nQ:
The crossover occurs at n~nQ When n<<nQ the chemical potential
 nQ 
becomes negative:  Boltzmann   k BT ln    0
 n 
Potensial Kimia untuk Gas Bose

g  
 
n   g   f   d  
Bose 1
nBE  d
Gas      
exp    1 0 0
exp    1
 k BT   B 
k T
The occupancy cannot be negative for any , thus, for bosons, 
  0 ( varies from 0 to ). Also, as T0,   0 T

0,   0
nBE T 0  1
 nBE T 0  
exp 0 / 0  1 1,   0

For bosons, the chemical potential is a non-trivial function of the density and temperature
(for details, see the lecture on BE condensation).
Pendekatan Klasik
The Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein distributions must reduce to the Maxwell-
Boltzmann distribution in the classical limit, ni  1 for all i. Hence,

1       the Maxwell-
    ni   exp   
exp    1 and        k BT  Boltzmann
 B 
k T exp   distribution
 B 
k T

The same result, of course, we would get if we start from the equation for the
average nk in Boltzmann statistics:

    Z                
ni  NPs  
N Z
exp        k BT ln  1   1  exp     exp   exp     exp  
Z1  k BT   N N  k BT    k BT   k BT   k BT 

Comparison of the MB, FD, and BE


distributions plotted for the same
value of . Note that the MB
distribution makes no sense when the
average # of particle in a given state
becomes comparable to 1 (violation of
the dilute limit).

=
Pendekatan Klasik (cont.)
3/ 2
 2 mkBT 
In terms of the density, the classical limit n  nQ   2

corresponds to n << the quantum density:  h 
We can also rewrite this condition as T>>TC where TC is the so-called degeneracy
temperature of the gas, which corresponds to the condition n~ nQ. More accurately:
2/3
h2  n 
TC   
2 mkB  2 .6 
For the FD gas, TC ~ EF/kB where EF is the Fermi energy (Lect. 24) , for the BE gas
TC is the temperature of BE condensation (Lect. 26).

Critical density for bosons:

g    
 3/ 2 
2 s  1  2m  
3/ 2
  x1/ 2
d   g   
2 s 1 2 mk T
n 2  2 
 
1/ 2
2 
B
  dx
0
exp       1  4      4    2
 0 exp x     1


Since   0, the maximum possible value of x1/ 2
n is obtained when  = 0, and 0 exp x 1 dx  1.3 
2 s  1  2mkBT 
3/ 2
where nQ is the quantum concentration,
ncr  1.3     2.6nQ
4 2   2  which varies as T 3/2
Pendekatan Ketiga Distribusi
S
Fermi-Dirac Nk B
Maxwell-Boltzmann
3
Bose-Einstein

U
k BTC 2

2
T
1 2 3 TC

zero-point 1
energy,
Pauli 2/3
h2  n 
principle TC   
T 2 mkB  2 .6 
1 2 3 TC
Comparison between Distributions

CV /NkB
Fermi-Dirac
Maxwell-Boltzmann
Bose-Einstein
2

1.5

0 1 T/TC
Comparison between Distributions
Maxwell Bose Fermi
Boltzmann Einstein Dirac
1 1 1
nk  nk  nk 
        
exp   exp    1 exp    1
 k BT   k BT   k BT 
distinguishable indistinguishable indistinguishable
Z=(Z1)N/N! integer spin 0,1,2 … half-integer spin 1/2,3/2,5/2 …
nK<<1

spin doesn’t matter bosons fermions

localized particles wavefunctions overlap wavefunctions overlap


 don’t overlap total  symmetric total  anti-symmetric

gas molecules photons free electrons in metals


at low densities 4Heatoms electrons in white dwarfs

“unlimited” number of unlimited number of never more than 1


particles per state particles per state particle per state
nK<<1
Aplikasi Statistik Termodinamika

Paramagnetism

Fungsi Partisi
Aplikasi Statistik Termodinamika

Momen magnet rata-rata

Fungsi Partisi
Aplikasi Statistik Termodinamika

Kapasitas panas magnetik


Aplikasi Statistik Termodinamika

Untuk temperatur rendah


Aplikasi Statistik Termodinamika

Jika dideferensial terhadap B


Aplikasi Statistik Termodinamika