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LESSON 6

ELEMENTS AND
PRINCIPLES OF ART
ELEMENTS OF ART: VISUAL
In Science, In Art,

 Elements are the building blocks of matter.  Elements are the building blocks or the ingredients
of art.

 Taking off from scientific reference, some  Elements are the necessary preconditions of art.
examples of elements are,
 To enumerate, the elements of art are,

IRON LINE
OXYGEN SHAPE AND FORM
SPACE
HYDROGEN COLOR
GOLD TEXTURE
HELIUM
LINE

 A line refers to a point moving at an identifiable path.


 It has length and direction. It also has width.
 It is one-dimensional, however, it has the capacity to
either define the perimeters of an artwork (edges)
and/or become a substantial component of the
composition.
 Although a line is “simple”, it has variations in view of its
orientation/direction, shape, and thickness.
• The first public mural executed by Keith Haring titled, “Todos juntos podemos parar el sida.” (Together We Can Stop
Aids) in Barcelona in 1989
• Keith Haring is known for using lines to provide an outline or contour of the figures he portrays in his work.
• It was recreated at the foyer of the Museu d’Art Contemporani de Barcelona (Barcelona Museum of Contemporary
Art) to commemorate it.
TYPES OF LINES
a. HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL LINES
b. DIAGONAL AND CROOKED LINES
c. CURVED LINES
a. HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL LINES

Horizontal and vertical lines refer to the orientation of the line. Together, these lines communicate stability and firmness.
HORIZONTAL LINES

 Horizontal lines are normally associated with


rest or calm.
 Horizontal lines are the lines that run across
from left to right across.
 It comes from the word “horizon”, in the sense
that horizontal lines are parallel to the horizon.
 Landscapes often contain these elements as
works like these often connote a visual sense of
being parallel to the ground.
 Horizontal lines alludes to position of the
reclined body of rest.
VERTICAL LINES

 Vertical lines connote elevation or


height, which is usually taken to mean
exaltation or aspiration for action.
 Vertical lines are the lines that goes
straight up and down.
b. DIAGONAL AND CROOKED LINES
DIAGONAL LINES

 A line that goes from one corner to


another, but is not an edge.
 Diagonal lines convey movement and
instability, although the progression can
be seen.
CROOKED LINES

 Something crooked is not straight.


 Crook is a Middle English
verb meaning “bend”.
 So crooked means “bent out of shape
or curving around sharply.”
c. CURVED LINES

 These are the lines that bend or coil.


 They allude to softness, grace, flexibility,
or even sensuality.
Francisco de Goya
 One of the most important Spanish artists.
 Known for his prints, he is a master of
etched works and use of aquatint.
 He use of this medium to articulate his
political views about the ills of society, war
scenes, and even the dreamlike and
grotesque while still engaging with what was
happening around him.
 As with most etching and other types of
prints, lines are dominant visual
components.
Franciso de Goya, “Porque esconderios?”
(Why hide them?) (1797-99) Etching and
aquatint.
Theodore Gericault, “The Raft of Medusa” (1818-19)

 Lines may not necessarily be explicit or


literally shown. As what many examples
will portray, implied lines may be just
as powerful if not more.
 In “The Raft of Medusa,” the position
and orientation of the bodies that are
aboard the raft are predominantly
diagonal in direction.
 This creates not only movement but
also tension in the scene.
SHAPE AND FORM
a. GEOMETRIC
b. ORGANIC
SHAPE AND FORM
 Shape and form are related to each other in the sense that they
define the space occupied by the object of art.

 SHAPE refers to two (2) dimensions: HEIGHT and WIDTH.

 while FORM refers to three (3) dimensions: HEIGHT, WIDTH,


and DEPTH.
Even if the shapes are part of a bigger picture, each can be identified by breaking the
visual components apart and making distinctions based on what we know and what
we have seen. Two (2) categories can be used as a broad distinction:

GEOMETRIC

 These shapes find origin in


mathematical propositions. As such, its
translation and use are often man-
made.
 Geometric includes shapes such as
squares, triangles, cubes, circles,
spheres, and cones, among others.
Piet Mondrian, “Composition with Color Planes and Gray Lines 1” Oil on
canvass. Private collection.
ORGANIC

 Organic shapes are those readily


occurring in nature, often irregular and
asymmetrical. The design of the vase is
foliage, a sample of series that made use
of morning glories.

Vase made of favrile glass. (c.a 1913) Gift of Louis Tifanny


Foundation, 1951. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Shapes may also be implied. For instance,
Raphael’s famous painting “The Madonna of the
Meadows” depicts three (3) figures: Mary, the
young Jesus (right), and the young John the Baptist
(left). The positions in which the group takes allude
to a triangular shape reinforced by the garb of
Mary.

Raphael, “The Madonna of the Meadows” (1505). Oil on


panel. Kunsthistorisches Museum,Vienna.
SPACE
• Related to shape and form is space. It is usually inferred
from a sense if depth, whether it is real or simulated.
• Real space is three (3) dimensional. Like what was
previously mentioned, sculptures are a perfect example of
artworks that bear this element.
ANNISH KAPOOT, “CLOUD GATE” (2004), LOCATED IN CHICAGO, ILLINOIS
In the middle of AT&T Plaza at the Millennium Park in the Loop Community area in
Chicago, the iconic “Cloud Gate” occupies a considerable space.
However, not all works are sculptures. In two-dimensional artworks, they
may be implied.

POSITIVE AND
NEGATIVE SPACE
Usually identified with the white space
is the negative space. The positive
space, on the other hand, is the space
where the shadow is heavily used on.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL
SPACE
Three-dimensional space can be
simulated through a variety of
techniques such as shading. An illusion
of three-dimensional can be achieved in
a two-dimensional work.
COLOR VISION
When viewed in full size, this image contains about 16 million pixels, each
corresponding to a different color on the full set of RGB colors. The human eye can
distinguish about 10 million different colors.
COLOR
• Color is perhaps one of the elements that enhances the appeal of an
artwork. Its effect has range, allowing the viewer to make responses
based on memory, emotion, and instinct, among others.
• This element is a property of light, as it is reflected off the object. Color
is not intrinsic to an object and without light , one cannot perceive color.
• Much of what we know about color begins with the notion of a Color
Theory.
Color Theory that was first unraveled by the experiments undertaken by Sir Isaac Newton in 1666.
A ray of sunlight passing through a prism reveals an array of colors akin to that of a rainbow.
An upshot of the Color Theory is the creation of a color wheel.
COLOR WHEEL
a. HUE
b. VALUE
c. INTENSITY
HUE
 One of the main properties of color. This dimension of color
gives its name.
 Hue is the term for the pure spectrum colors commonly
referred to by the "color names".

 It can be subdivided into three (3):


PRIMARY COLORS

 Primary colors include red,


blue, and yellow.
 They are the source of all
other colors.
SECONDARY COLORS

 Secondary colors are


green, orange, and violet.
 A color resulting from the
mixing of two primary colors.
TERTIARY COLORS

 Tertiary colors are red-orange,


yellow-orange, yellow-green,
blue-green, blue-violet, and red-
violet.
 Six (6) in total, these hues are
achieved when primary and
secondary colors are mixed.
VALUE
This refers to the brightness or darkness of color.
Often, this is used by artists to create the illusion of
depth and solidity, a particular mood, communicate a
feeling, or in establishing a scene. (e.g., day and night)
VALUE
Light colors – taken as the source of light Dark colors – the lack or even the
in the composition. absence of light.
Each primary color has a range of values based on the addition and
diminishing quantity and quality of light.

Tint – this is the lighter color than the Shade – this is the darker color than the
normal value. (e.g., pink for red) normal value. (e.g., maroon for red)
INTENSITY
This is the color’s brightness or dullness. It is identified as the strength
of color, wether it is vivid or muted. To achieve a specific intensity of a
color, one may add either gray or its complimentary color.
INTENSITY
Bright or warm colors – positive energy Dull or cool colors – sedate/soothing,
seriousness or calm
COLOR HARMONIES
To better understand intensity of color, color harmonies are to
be considered. In interior design, we often hear designers refer to
color schemes — a guide for selecting not only wall paint but
also furniture and decor. However, color harmonies are also
intergral considerations not only for pictorial arts but also for
other art forms.
a. MONOCHROMATIC HARMONIES

Monochromatic harmonies –
use the variations of a hue. An
example is Claude Monet’s
“House of Parliament.”

Claude Monet,“House of Parliament” (1900/1) Oil on canvass


b. COMPLIMENTARY HARMONIES
Complimentary harmonies –
involve two (2) colors opposite
each other in the color wheel.
Since they are at contrary
positions, the reaction is most
intense.

Cima de Conegliano (Giovanni Battista Cima), “Three Saints:


Roch, Anthony Abbot, and Lucy.” Oil on canvass transferred to
wood. (ca. 1513) The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
c. ANALOGOUS HARMONIES
Analogous harmonies – make
use of two (2) colors beside
each other in the color wheel.

Edgar Degas, “Before the Race” (1882-1884) Oil on panel.


Henry Walters (Bequeathed, 1931) Walters Art Museum
(WAM)
TEXTURE
Like space texture can be real or implied.
This element in an artwork is experienced
through the sense of touch (and sight). This
element renders the art object tactile.
a. TEXTURES IN THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL PLANE

 Texture can be implied using one


technique or a combination of other
elements of art. By creating this visual
quality in the artwork, one can imagine
how the surface will feel if it was to be
touched.
 Some of the words used to describe
texture are the following: rough or
smooth, hard or soft, hairy, leathery,
sharp or dull, etc.
b. SURFACE TEXTURE

 Refers to the texture of the


three-dimensional art object.
PLANES AND PERSPECTIVE
 Some art forms work with actual spaces, such as sculptors, architects, and stage
designers. However, with pictorial art that is two-dimensional, notions of depth and
hence perspective requires the implementation of principles and techniques in
creating in illusion that will fool the eye to three-dimensionality when in reality there
is none.
 Picture plane is the actual surface of the painting or drawing, where no illusion of a
third dimension exist. Here, the elements lay flat, as if one was looking through a
window into what lies on the other side of the glass.
 Its used was based on the following observations:
a. As forms and objects recede, the smaller they become.
b. We were taught that parallel lines never meet. However, when they, too, seem to
converge when they recede into a distance, at a point, they both disappear. This point
of disappearance is the vanishing point.
A viewpoint may also be constructed as:

 Normal (view standing up)


 Low (view from a lower angle)
 High (view looking down on a scene)

depending on the position the viewer takes.


There are three (3) types of perspective, grounded on the
number of vanishing points used by the artist:

1. One-point perspective – often


used in depicting roads, tracks,
hallways, or rows of trees; these
type of perspective shows
parallel lines that seem to
converge at a specific and lone
vanishing point, along the
horizon line.
2. Two-point perspective –
pertains to a painting or drawing
that makes use of two (2)
vanishing points, which can be
placed anywhere along the
horizon line. It is often used in
depicting structures such as
houses or buildings in the
landscape that are viewed from
a specific.
3. Three-point perspective – in this
type of perspective, the viewer is
looking at a scene from above or
below. As the name suggests, it
makes use of the three (3)
vanishing points, each
corresponding to each axis of the
scene.
ELEMENTS OF ART: AUDITORY
 Perhaps one of the most widespread forms of art, whose intersection in
daily life is most perceptible, is music. Music is sound organized in a
specific time.
 Together with literature, music as an art form is classified as auditory art.
However, some would agree that it is under the broad category of
performance art. Either way, music, much like the visual arts, has its own
building blocks or elements.
 Some of the common elements of music are the following:
RHYTHM, DYNAMICS, MELODY, HARMONY, TIMBRE and TEXTURE.
HARMONY

If melody is horizontal, harmony is vertical. It arises when


pitches are combined to form chords. When several notes are
simultaneously played, this refers to a chord.
Harmony can be described in terms of its “harshness”:
dissonance is the harsh-sounding combination while consonance
is the smooth-sounding combination.
RHYTHM
 Often associated to the terms beat, meter, and tempo, rhythm is
the element of music that situates it in time. It is the pulse of
the music.
 Beat is the basic unit of music while tempo refers to its speed
(beats/second)
 Beats can be organized into a recognizable recurrent pattern,
which is called the meter.
Classical terms are used to refer to the variations in tempo, some
of which are:
 Largo – slowly and broadly
 Andante – walking pace
 Moderato – at moderate speed
 Allegro – fast
 Vivace – lively
 Accelerando – gradually speeding up
 Rallentado – gradually slowing down
 Allargando – getting slower, broadening
 Rubato – literally “robbed time,” rhythm is played freely for expressive effect.
DYNAMICS
The element of music that refers to the loudness or quietness of music is dynamics.
Classical terms are used to refer to the different levels pertaining to this:

 Pianissimo [pp] – very quiet


 Piano [p] – quiet
 Mezzo-piano [mp] – moderately quiet
 Mezzo-forte [mf] – moderately loud
 Forte [f] – loud
 Fortissimo [ff] – very loud

When composers indicate an increase, or decrease in loudness, they use the terms
crescendo for the former; and decrescendo or diminuendo for the latter.
MELODY
Melody refers to the linear presentation
(horizontal) of pitch. By horizontal, it means that in
musical notation, it is read in succession from left to
right. Pitch is the highness or lowness of musical
sound.
TIMBRE

Timbre is often likened to the color of the music. It


is a quality that distinguishes a voice or an instrument
from another. Dependent on the technique, the timbre
may give a certain tone or characteristic to music,
much like how a painter evokes different or
impressions onto the canvas.
TEXTURE

The number of melodies, the type of layers, and their


relatedness in a composition is the texture of music. It may be:
 Monophonic – single melodic line
 Polyphonic – two or more melodic lines
 Homophonic – main melody accompanied by chords.
PRINCIPLES
OF ART
PRINCIPLES OF ART
 The “principles of design” are mechanisms of arrangement and organization for the
various elements of design in artwork.
 It is the means an artist uses to organize elements within a work of art. by the careful
placement of repeated elements in a work of art to cause a visual tempo or beat.
equilibrium or stability to a work of art.
 The principles of art are essentially a set of criteria which are used to explain how
the visual elements are arranged in a work of art. These principles are possibly the
closest thing we have to a set of objective criteria for analyzing and judging art.
 These principles are: BALANCE, SCALE AND PROPORTION, EMPHASIS AND
CONTRAST, UNITY AND VARIETY, HARMONY, MOVEMENT, RHYTHM, and
REPETITION AND PATTERN.
BALANCE

 This principle refers to the


distribution of the visual elements
in view of their placement in
relation to each other.
There are three (3) forms of balance:

a. Symmetrical – the elements used


in one side are reflected to the
other. This offer the most stable
visual sense to any artwork.
b. Asymmetrical – the elements are
not the same (or of the same
weight) on each side, putting the
heaviness on one side.
c. Radial – there is a central point in
the composition, around which
elements and objects are
distributed.
SCALE AND PROPORTION
Proportion and scale are principles of art that describe the size, location, or amount of one element in
relation to another. Scale and proportion in art are both concerned with size.

Scale
 Scale pertains to the size in
relation to what is normal for the
figure or object in question.
 Scale is the size of one object in
relation to the other objects in a
design or artwork.
Proportion
 Proportion, on the other hand, is the size of the
components, or of objects in relation to one another
when taken as a composition or a unit.
 Proportion has a very similar definition with scale
but tends to refer to the relative size of parts within
a whole. In this case, the whole can be a single object
like a person's face or the entire artwork.
 For example, if you're painting a portrait of a dog
and a person, the dog should be at the correct scale
in relation to the person. The person's body (and the
dog's as well) should be in a proportion to what we
can recognize as a human being.
Leonardo da Vinci’s “Vitruvian Man” is an
exploration on the ideas of the Roman architect
Vitruvius, in which the human body is an example
of classical proportion in architecture. For Da
Vinci, man’s body can be used to better
understand the symmetry that exist in nature.

In the first century, a Roman architect named


Vitruvius studied proportion. He believed that
the human body was aesthetically, the best
example of proportion. He applied human
proportions to his own architectural designs.
Building on the concept of a universally aesthetic
proportion, Leonard Da Vinci attempted to
illustrate the ideal human proportions laid out by
Vitruvius centuries before. He called this the
“Vitruvian Man”.
Proportion can be:

a. Natural – relates to the realistic


size of the visual elements in the
artwork, especially for figurative
works. When it is the accuracy in
relation to the real world that the
artist is after, this is now referred
to as the principle of scale.
b. Exaggerated – refers to the unusual size
of visual elements, deliberately
exaggerating the immensity or
minuteness of an object.
In relation this, there are notions in
scale that differentiate when an element
is smaller than expected (diminutive),
and when something appears to be
larger than what is presumed
(monumental)
c. Idealized – most common to
those that follow canons of
perfection, the size-relations of
elements or objects, which
achieve the most ideal size
relations.
EMPHASIS AND CONTRAST
Emphasis allows the attention of the viewer to a
focal point(s), accentuating or drawing attention
to these elements or objects. This can be done
through the manipulation of the elements or
through the assistance of other principles,
especially that of contrast.
Emphasis is a way of using elements to stress a
certain area in an artwork. Emphasis is really just
another way to describe a focal point in your
artwork. In the painting River Landscape By
Moonlight by George Henry, there is strong
emphasis on the moon through the use of color
contrast.
Contrast is the disparity between the
elements that figure into the
composition. One object may be made
stronger compared compared to other
objects (hence, emphasis). This can be
done in many ways using the elements
of art. For instance, space, specifically
the use of negative and positive space,
is an example of contrast. Another
example is the use of complimentary
colors in a work of art.