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Exercise 1

Computer Hardware

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Objectives for Exercise 1

When you complete this exercise, you


will be able to:

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 Identify, disconnect, and reconnect the
computer’s cables and cover.

 Identify the external connectors on a typical


personal computer.

 Identify and explain the purpose of the


major internal components.

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Why Disassemble the Computer?

 To upgrade.
 To repair.
 To add to it.

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The three most important things
to remember when disassembling
a computer are:
 Document

 Document

Document!

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Document
 Where cards are located.
 How cables are routed.
 Orientation of cables and connectors.
 Hardware used to secure each component.
 Anything else that might cause confusion
when reassembling.

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Your greatest enemy when
working inside the computer is
Electrostatic Discharge
or ESD.

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Your best defense against ESD is
the anti-static wrist strap.

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An internal resistor provides
shock protection.

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Switch off power at the computer
and at the workbench...

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...but leave the computer plugged
in.

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Use anti-static mats on the
workbench and floor.

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Hold Circuit Boards by their Edges.

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Store Circuit
Boards in Anti-
static Bags.

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Tips for Disassembly.

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Turn off power to the computer
and everything connected to it.

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Disconnect the monitor and set it
aside.

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Disconnect the keyboard and set
it aside.

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PS/2 Keyboard Connection

10101 10101

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Disconnect the mouse and set it
aside.

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PS/2 Mouse Connection

10101 10101

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Remove these
screws...

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... not these.

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1.

2.

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Spreading the sides of the cover
will help it to clear the computer.

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Removing the side panel.

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3

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The Motherboard.

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The Motherboard may also be
known as the:
 System Board
 Planar Board
 Baseboard

 Main Board
 Logic Board
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The Power Supply.

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Standard Power Supply

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Power Selection Switch

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WARNING!
Hazardous voltages
contained within this
power supply, not user
serviceable. Return to
service center for repair.
Power Supply Connectors

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Power Supply Output Voltages
AT-Type

 +5 Volts
 +12 Volts
 –12 Volts
 –5 Volts

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Motherboard Power Connectors
Black
Wires

P9 P8

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Power Supply Output Voltages
ATX-Type
 +5 Volts
 +12 Volts
 –12 Volts
 –5 Volts
 +3.3 Volts
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ATX Power Connector

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ATX Power Connector

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Second P4 Motherboard
Power Connector
Supplies 12 Volts

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Large Molex Connector

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Berg Connector

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Some connectors are held
in place with a latch.
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Grasp the
connector
by the
shell…

Never by
the leads.

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The CD-ROM Drive

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The Hard Drive

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Mother-
board

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Master
Hard Drive

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Slave
Hard Drive

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When installing ribbon cables
watch for:
 Cable should match connector.
 Pin 1 of cable to Pin 1 of connector.
 Missed columns or rows of pins.

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1

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Missed Row of Pins

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Missed Row of Pins
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Missed
Pins
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The Floppy Drive

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Mother-
board

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5¼"
Drive 5¼"
Drive

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3½"
Drive

3½"
Drive
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Drive B
Drive A “Before Twist”
“After twist”

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1. Remove the screw.

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2. Rock the board end to end...

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... up and out of its socket.

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The AGP Video Board

Video Board

AGP Slot

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Field Replaceable Units (FRUs)

Units that can be replaced in the


field with common hand tools.

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Keep these tips in mind.
 Document everything.
 Shut off power.
 Protect against ESD—use antistatic wrist
strap.
 Grasp connectors by shells, not by leads.
 Never use force.
 Release latches on connectors.
 Rock boards end to end.
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Now, it’s your turn.

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