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English

PHRASE
A group of words that does not
have both subject and verb
1. On the road
2. The teacher, Mr. Awais
3. Sami likes
4. Over the river
 Noun Phrase
 Verb Phrase
 Adjective Phrase
 Adverb Phrase
 Prepositional Phrase
 Infinitive Phrase
 A noun phrase consists of a noun phrase and
other related words which modify the noun
 e.g. He is wearing a nice red shirt
 The boy with brown hair is
laughing
Verb Phrase
A verb phrase is a combination of main verb and
its auxiliaries. For example
 He is eating an apple

 She has finished the work


 An adjective phrase is a group of words that
functions like an adjective in a sentence. It consists
of adjective and any word that modifies a noun or
pronoun
 For example He is wearing a nice black coat
A boy from America won the race
Adverb Phrase
It is a group of words that functions as an adverb in a
sentence. It modifies a verb, an adjective or
another adverb
 E.g
 He behaves in a good manner
 They were shouting in a loud voice
Infinitive Phrase
It is consists of an infinitive(to+Ist form of
verb) and modifiers. E.g
 He likes to read books

 To earn money it is a desire of every


man .
 A prepositional phrase consists of a
prepositional phrase and also may consist of
other modifiers.
 For example On a table, near a wall, at the
door
A gerund is a form of verb when it acts as a
noun (ing form) known as gerund
 Swimming is a good exercise

 Smoking is injurious to health


CLAUSE
A group of words with both a subject
and predicate
E.g He is sleeping
The kids were laughing at the joker
Types of Clause
1. Dependent
2. Independent
 I cannot remember what happened last
night.

 He has a chain which is made of gold.


Such a group of words which forms part of
a sentence, and contains a Subject and a
Predicate, is called a Clause.
INDEPENDENT
CLAUSE
A complete thought that can
stand alone
For example
I met a boy who had helped me
DEPENDENT CLAUSE
A group of words with both a subject
and verb; cannot stand alone or it is a
fragment. Can’t convey full meaning
for example
I met the boy who had helped me
The teacher asked a question but no
one answered
 This is meaningful combination of
words
 A group of words , which makes
complete sense, is called a Sentence.
 That have a subject and predicate(verb
and or object)
 That convey a statement , question ,
feeling and idea.
The subject is what (or whom) the
sentence is about in the form of
noun and pronoun
The predicate tells something
about the subject in the form
of verb or and object
 THE Verb : The word in a sentence
that expresses an action, an
occurrence or state of being
 The Object in a sentence is
the entity that is acted upon
by the subject in the form of
noun and pronoun
Every sentence has two essential parts:
and

The subject of a The predicate of a


sentence is the sentence
part about which is the part which says
something about the
something is being
subject.
said.
The flower
bloomed.
He painted. she played.
He plays the piano
The girls in the team were all well.
good students.
1. Assertive
2. Interrogative
3. Imperative
4. Exclamatory
A sentence that makes a
statement or assertion is called a
Declarative or Assertive
sentence.
 He delivers a lecture on
poverty
 He is an intelligent student
A sentence that asks a question is called
an Interrogative sentence.
1. Where are you going now?
2. What did you eat yesterday?
4. Will you go to Lahore tomorrow?
A sentence that expresses a command
or request is called Imperative
sentence.
1. Get out of my office.

2. Please forgive me this time.


1.

A sentence that expresses strong feeling is


called an Exclamatory sentence.
1. What a beautiful horse I have bought!

2. How old this woman is!

3. Alas! We have lost it.