Sunteți pe pagina 1din 46

'DUNGAN'- BISAYA

• is ethereal, something not weighed


down by the world.
• it has the will of it's own to reside in a
human body.
GINHAWA
• Is the air we breathe. Once a person is not breathing
he will automatically die.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SOUL
AND SPIRIT
• Soul and spirit are two primary immaterial aspects of
humanity.

GENERAL OVERVIEW OF
DIFFERENCE
ETYMOLOGY
• Soul is the spiritual part while spirit is the inspiration
breathe of life.

BIBLICAL BELIEFS
Soul is our conscious; our
conscience.Hence,spirit is the part of
Holy Trinity.
WESTERN CULTURE
Soul is considered as moral consciousness while spirit are
ghost or supernatural.

EASTERN CULTURE
Soul is known as 'Dharma' ( Hinduism)
TAOISM - nature and ancestors spirits
CONFUCIANISM - Existence of animistic
spirits, deities and etc.
THE SOUL TO SOME
ETHNOLINGUISTIC GROUPS
ETHNIC GROUP NAME OF THE SOUL

IFUGAO LINNAWA ( soul of the dead)

ISNEG KADUWA

KANKANAEY AB-ABIIK

TAGALOG KALULUWA
'KARARUA, KARKAMA,
ANIWAAS,ARARIA'- ILOKANO

KARARUA- equivalent to Christian soul.

KARKARMA- it can leave a physical body. It also stands for natural vigor, mind and
reason.

ANIWAAS- it can leave the body during sleep.

ARARIA- the liberated soul. It can manipulate physical objects.


'IKARURUWA' -IBANAG
Have a distinction between body (baggi) and soul (ikaruruwa).

• Ikaruruwa means companion of the body.


• Mekararuanan ( me+kararua-to be rid of the soul).

MANGAGAGGAKO
-ritual for the soul to return in the body.
'HANUNOO MANGYAN'- MINDORO

-Believe in a plurality of souls.


• Karaduwa Tawo
• Karaduwa Kuti
• Karaduwa Baboy
• Karaduwa Hipon

'KIYARALUWA'- NORTHERN PALAWAN


"True Soul" and five secondary souls. Kiyaraluwa is given birth by
"Magindusa".

'GIMUKOD'- BUKIDNON

The Gimukod has two types. The Right hand is the good
soul. And left hand is the bad soul.
TRIVIA!
Bukidnon has 'Makatu and Pipitu'. Makatu
already exist before a child's birth but it is
seperated from the body. The Makatu is
breathed into man by Miyaw-Biyaw.
'PIPITU HA MAKATU' has seven souls.
• Awake in night.
• Awake in day
• Jumps off the cliff
• Put hands in snake holes
• Sit under the tree
• Always walking around.
• Swims in the water
WHERE DOES RITUAL ORIGINATE?
GENERAL APPROACHES TO THEORIES ABOUT NATURE OF
RITUAL:
ORIGIN APPROACH - was believed to be found in totemic and
totemism (animal symbolic clan and cults)

FUNCTIONAL APPROACH - empirical evidence through actual


observation

HISTORY OF RELIGIOUS APPROACH- holds the view that it is an


expression of the sacred.
CLASSIFICATION OF RITUALS
Imitative

Positive and Negative

Sacrificial

Life Crisis
IMITATIVE

It is patterned after
myths ; ritual repeats.
NEGATIVE RITUAL
The word taboo has
been applied to
those rituals that
concern something
should be avoided
because it is
forbidden.
SACRIFICIAL RITUALS

Are seen as the earliest


for form of religion.
LIFE CRISIS RITUAL
Is the transition of one
mode or stage of life into
another. This ritual usually
defines the life of an
individual.
DEVELOPNG A FILIPINO
IDENTITY:

VALUES, TRAITS,
COMMUNITY AND
INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS
DEVELOPING A FILIPINO IDENTITY; VALUES, TRAITS,
COMMUNITY, AND INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS
Filipino culture is a mix of both eastern and western cultures. The
beliefs and traditions of pre-colonial Philippines were mainly and
indigenous Malay heritage. Malay made a large contribution to
Philippines history. The Malay temperament is a basic factor of a
Filipino personality. It can be describe as “being nice and pleasant to
other”
When the Spaniards colonized the islands, the Hispanic culture
influenced the natives. Christianity became the dominant religion,
and a western-based social and political organization was
established in the Philippines.
Americans shaped the modern Filipino culture, and this is primarily
manifested by the widespread use of English language in the
Philippines today.
• Strength and Weaknesses of the Filipino character
are rooted in factors, such as:

• 1. The home environment


• 2. The social environment
• 3. Culture and language
• 4. History
• 5 The educational system
• 6. Religion
• 7. The economic environment
• 8. The political environment
• 9. Mass media
• Leadership
Strength of the
Filipino Character:
•1. Pakikipagkapwa-tao
Opening yourself to others and feel one with others with dignity and -
Respect life as fellow human beings
- Sense of fairness and justice
- Concern for others
- Helpfulness and generosity
•2. Family Orientation
A genuine and deep love for family
- Honor and Respect
- Generosity and Sacrifice
- Sense of trust and Security
•3. Joy and Humor
Filipinos have a cheerful and fun-loving
approach to life and its up and down,
Pleasant Disposition, a Sense of Humor and
Propensity for happiness that contribute
not only to the Filipino charm but also to
the Filipino Spirit.

Laughing or smiling at those we love and


hate.
* Tend to make joke about our good and
even bad fortune
* Smiling and heads up even in the most
trying of times
•4. Flexibility,
Adaptability, and
Creativity
- Easy to adapt, blend to other culture, practice other tradition,
speak and study other languages and even diff. environment or
climate)
•5. Hard work and
Industry
- Capacity for hard work given to raise one's standard living of
a decent life for one's family.
•6. Faith and Religiosity
Faith in God - accepting reality to comprehend as a human
created by God. "Pampalakas-loob"
•7. Ability to Survive
•Weaknesses of the
Filipino Character
1. Extreme Personalism
- always trying to give personal interpretation to actions (Cow fave or
Mahilig sa "baka' ")
-
- thank you with "but" (compliment-criticism-compliment)
•2. Extreme family-
centeredness
- Very strong family
protection whether it
is in good or bad
condition and
situation
(consentidor)
(overprotected)
•3.Lack of discipline
Very relaxed attitude but POOR Time Management (the famous Filipino Time)
- Impatient and unable to delay gratification or reward
- Love to take short-cuts or 'palusot' system
- Carelessness
•4. Passivity and lack of
initiative
- Very complacent (relax) but their rarely is a sense of
urgency (It's OK we have 1 day left to finished, just
relax)

- Strong personality but Lack of Self-Confidence and


strong determination to achieve goals

- Good at start but NO Sense of Continuity (sometimes


no direction at all or no plan at all)
•5. Colonial mentality
- To much appreciation to other nationality and foreign products than
native one (local vs imported)

- Lack of LOVE and Appreciation on what they have

- Open outside but Side-open or Close inside (it's OK and Best to RECEIVED
more than to Share)
•6. Kanya-kanya
syndrome
Self-serving attitude that generates feeling of envy and
competitiveness towards others (status vs prestige).
- Personal ambition but insensitive to common good
(people & own country)
- Crab mentality (Hilahan and Inggitan System)
- Lack of appreciation resulting unhealthy competition
•7. Lack of Self-analysis
and self- reflection
Superficial and flighty or dreamy
ESTABLISHING A DEMOCRATIC CULTURE
Democracy- is a government in which the supreme power is vested in and
exercised by the people directly and indirectly through a system of
presentation, usually involving periodically held free election. Although
democracy has several flaws, it also uniquely possesses a number of features
that most people, whatever their basic political beliefs would consider
desirable.

Formal- refers to a system of ideals and models that are officially established.
Informal- refers to the acceptance of behaviours and thoughts that are not
established as the formal ways interpersonal relationship.
*Culture- is an informal way of shaping collective awareness.
Democracy also cannot be sustained if political attitudes and political culture
of responsibility for society concerned about human rights and human
development, are important in establishing a democratic culture.
THE DIGITAL SELF
-The feeling of an inner self and an outer self generated the impulse to reveal
oneself to others in a believable manner.
• Sincerity- refers to the exposure in public of what one feels privately.
• Authenticity- person is one who takes action based on some internal
standard and takes responsibility for this freely chosen action.
• The social world of a western-influenced society, like the Philippines,
typically consist of three domains:
• *Family
• *School, and
• *Neighborhood
• According to (Rosenberg, 1986). People in this social domains exert
different impacts on the formation of self, depending on the stage of
development of the child.
• The emergence of the Internet, however, adds a fourth domain, the
online life to the social world. The online life has definitely altered the
dynamics of self-identity, especially for adolescents.
I, ME, MYSELF, AND MY
USER ID ONLINE IDENTITY
What is Digital Self?

DIGITAL SELF – is the self that is constructed online also known as the persona
you use when you’re online. Some people maintain one or more online identifies
that are distinct from their “real world” selves; others have a single online self
that’s more or less the same as the one they inhabit in the real world.
Analyses of the experiences of online users (especially teenagers) have
shown that the characteristics of the digital self are (Zhao, 2005) :

• Oriented inward- more likely to be “more oriented toward one’s inner


world” focusing on other people’s feelings and personalities.
• Narrative in Nature- online users will only come to know the person
primarily through what the person tells them.
• Retractable- others are unable to link the online self-claims to the offline
identities.
• Multiplicable- people can interact with one another in different domains of
online world at relatively the same time.
Self presentation
This refers to how people attempt to present themselves to control or
shape how others (called the audience) view them.
Tends to be superficial.
part of a broader set of behaviors called impression management.

A study found that students and non students between 18 to 39 years old
were more likely to disclose their interest online rather than their beliefs and
feelings. (Attrill & Jalil, 2011).
BASIC KINDS OF PEOPLE YOU INTERACT
WITH ONLINE ARE:
1. People you don’t know at all;
2. People you know both online and offline; and
3. People you know only online.
SELECTIVE SELF-PRESENTATION AND
IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT.

Self Presentation behavior - is any behavior intended to create, modify,


or maintain an impression of ourselves in the minds of others.

Why do people engage in self–presentation?


• Helps facilitate social interaction;
• Enables individuals to attain material and social rewards; and
• Helps people privately construct desired identities
SOCIAL MEDIA PLATFORMS ARE
USED FOR:
 Social Browsing;
Social searching;
Communication; and impression management
Impression Management – also called self-presentation involves the
processes by which people control how they are perceived by others.
Two main motives of attempting to manage the impressions of
others:
Instrumental – to basically gain rewards and increase one’s self-esteem.
Expressive – attempting to be in control of one’s personal behavior and
identity. Response to moral norms, expectations, or restrictions.
Impression-management Strategies
• Self-Promotion – proactive process which a person actively says things or takes
action to show his or her competence to an audience (Rosenfeld et al., 1995, p.51).
• Ingratiation – a process by which someone tries to win the approval or acceptance
of others.
• Exemplification – Involves strategic self-sacrifice so that observers may recognize
the dedication.
• Intimidation – a strategy that involves showing off authority, power, or the potential
to punish in order to be seen by observers as someone who could be or is
dangerous.
• Supplication – an approach where individual exploits his/her weakness or
shortcomings to receive help or benefits.