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punctuation

parts of speech
sentence

subject-verb
tenses

about
ESSENTIALS OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION
ESSENTIALS OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

10% WEIGHTAGE
punctuation
sentence

parts of speech
subject-verb
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TOPICS:
01 PARTS OF SPEECH 02 TENSES

03 SUBJECT VERB AGREEMENT 04 PUNCTUATIONS

05 SENTENCE STRUCTURES
PARTS OF SPEECH
Parts of speech are category of words which have
similar grammatical properties.
punctuation
sentence

subject-verb

parts of speech
tenses

about
Words that are assigned to the same part of speech
generally display similar behavior in terms of :
01) Syntax (they play similar roles within the
grammatical structure of sentence )
02) Morphology (they undergo inflection for similar
properties)
IMPORTANCE

If you want to write well, then it’s important that you


know the tools of your trade.
punctuation
sentence

subject-verb

parts of speech
tenses

about
The greater understanding of the parts of speech,
helps a person to:
1. Use the language Concisely
2. Avoid ambiguity
3. Maintain fluency in speaking and writing
PARTS OF SPEECH
CONJUCTION

NOUN PREPOSITION
punctuation
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subject-verb

parts of speech
PRONOUN
tenses

about
ARTICLE

VERB

ADVERB ADJECTIVE
NOUN

A Noun is a word denoting any abstract or


concrete entity; a person, place, thing, idea or
quality.

They are the most common part of speech.

They are called naming words.


TYPES OF NOUN
COMMON
COLLECTIVE CONCRETE

PROPER
COMPOSED

ABSTRACT
UNCONTABLE
COUNTABLE
COMMON NOUN
A common noun is a noun that refers to people or things in
general.

EXAMPLES:
• Boy
• Country
• Bridge
• City
PROPER NOUN
A proper noun is a name that identifies a particular person,
place or thing.

EXAMPLES:
• Steven
• Africa
• Monday
• London
COLLECTIVE NOUN
Collective nouns refer to groups of people or things.

EXAMPLES:
• Audience
• Family
• Government
• Team
COMPOUND NOUN
Compound nouns refer to two or more nouns combined to form a
single noun.

EXAMPLES:
• Sister-in-law
• Schoolboy
• Fruit juice
• Ink Pen
CONCRETE NOUN
A concrete noun is a noun which refers to people and to things
that exist physically and can be seen, touched, smelled, heard, or
tasted.

EXAMPLES:
• Dog
• Building
• Tree
• Rain
ABSTRACT NOUN
An abstract noun is a noun which refers to ideas, qualities, and
conditions - things that cannot be seen or touched and things
which have no physical reality.
EXAMPLES:
• Truth
• Danger
• Time
• Happiness
COUNTABLE NOUN
Have a singular and a plural form. In plural, these nouns can be
used with a number- they can be counted.

EXAMPLES:
• Friends
• Chairs
• Houses
• Boys
UNCOUNTABLE NOUN

Can only be used in singular. They can't be counted.

EXAMPLES:
• Money
• Bread
• Water
• Coffee
TYPES OF NOUN
COMMON
COLLECTIVE CONCRETE

PROPER
COMPOSED

ABSTRACT
UNCONTABLE
COUNTABLE
PARTS OF SPEECH
CONJUCTION

NOUN PREPOSITION
punctuation
sentence

subject-verb

parts of speech
PRONOUN
tenses

about
ARTICLE

VERB

ADVERB ADJECTIVE
PRONOUN

A Pronoun is a substitute for a noun or noun


phrase

Pronouns make sentences shorter and clearer


since they replace nouns.
TYPES OF PRONOUN

01 Demonstrative
05 Possessive

02 Relative
06 Reflective

03 Indefinite
07 Intensive

04 Interrogative
08 Personal
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN

These pronouns are used to demonstrate or indicate.

EXAMPLES:
• This
• That
• Those
• These
RELATIVE PRONOUN
Relative pronouns are used to make 'relative clauses', clauses that refer to or
give more information about nouns.

EXAMPLES:
• Who
• Whom
• Which
• That
INDEFINITE PRONOUN

These pronouns are used for non- specific items and people.

EXAMPLES:
• Anyone
• Somebody
• Few
• Many
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN

These pronouns are used to make questions.

EXAMPLES:
• Who
• Which
• What
• Where
POSESSIVE PRONOUN

These pronouns are used to show ownership.

EXAMPLES:
• His
• Hers
• Our
• Your
REFLECTIVE PRONOUN

These pronouns are used to refer to another noun in sentence and


end with ‘self’.

EXAMPLES:
• Himself
• Myself
• Yourself
• Theirselves
INTENSIVE PRONOUN

These pronouns are used to emphasise on a subject and end with


‘self’.

EXAMPLES:
• Himself
• Myself
• Yourself
• Theirselves
PERSONAL PRONOUN

These pronouns are used as direct substitutes for nouns.

EXAMPLES:
• I
• He
• They
• You
TYPES OF PRONOUN

01 Demonstrative
05 Possessive

02 Relative
06 Reflective

03 Indefinite
07 Intensive

04 Interrogative
08 Personal
PARTS OF SPEECH
CONJUCTION

NOUN PREPOSITION
punctuation
sentence

subject-verb

parts of speech
PRONOUN
tenses

about
ARTICLE

VERB

ADVERB ADJECTIVE
PREPOSITION
A Preposition is a word that
relates words to each other in
a phrase or sentence and aids
in syntactic context.

Prepositions show the


relationship between a noun
or a pronoun with another
word in the sentence.
PARTS OF SPEECH
CONJUCTION

NOUN PREPOSITION
punctuation
sentence

subject-verb

parts of speech
PRONOUN
tenses

about
ARTICLE

VERB

ADVERB ADJECTIVE
CONJUNCTION
 A Conjunction is a syntactic connector, which links words, phrases, or clauses.

 Conjunctions connect words or group of words.

 Conjunctions are of three types:

1. Correlative Conjunction are pairs of conjunctions that join words or group of words that are used
in the same way.

2. Coordinating Conjunction are conjunctions those joining words or group of words that are used in
the same way.

3. Subordinating Conjunctions are conjunctions that link a dependent clause to an independent clause.
Example: because, since, after
PARTS OF SPEECH
CONJUCTION

NOUN PREPOSITION
punctuation
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subject-verb

parts of speech
PRONOUN
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about
ARTICLE

VERB

ADVERB ADJECTIVE
VERB

 A verb is one of the main parts of a sentence


or question in English.
 The verb signals an action, an occurrence, or a
state of being. whether mental, physical, or
mechanical, verbs always express activity.
TYPES OF VERB

ACTION MODAL

AUXILARY STATIVE
ACTION VERBS

Action Verbs are verbs that express action.

EXAMPLES:
• Run
• Walk
• Do
• Drive
AUXILARY VERBS
Auxiliary (or Helping) verbs are used together with a
main verb to show the verb’s tense or to form a negative
or question.
EXAMPLES:
• Does Sam write all his own reports?
• The secretaries haven’t written all the letters yet.
• Terry is writing an e-mail to a client at the moment.
At times, when actions or conditions are used once and
not repeated, some of the verbs we use as auxiliary
verbs are instead used as action verbs.
AUXILARY VERBS
At times, when actions or conditions are used once and
not repeated, some of the verbs we use as auxiliary
verbs are instead used as action verbs.
Example:
1.Jerry has a large coffee stain on his shirt.
Has = action verb
2.Because he spills things so often, Jerry does more
laundry than most people.
Does = action verb
3. Jerry is messy.
Is = action verb
STATIVE VERBS
Stative verbs are verbs that express a state rather than
an action. They usually relate to thoughts, emotions,
relationships, senses, states of being and measurements.

EXAMPLES:
• Paul feels rotten today. He has a bad cold.
• Do you recognize him? He is a famous rock star.
• Our client appreciated all the work we did for him
MODAL VERBS
A modal is a type of auxiliary (helping) verb that is
used to express: ability, possibility, permission or
obligation. Modal phrases (or semi-modals) are used to
express the same things as modals, but are a
combination of auxiliary verbs and the preposition to.
EXAMPLES:
• Can/could/be able to
• May/might
• Shall/should
• Must/have to
• Will/would
TYPES OF VERB

ACTION MODAL

AUXILARY STATIVE
PARTS OF SPEECH
CONJUCTION

NOUN PREPOSITION
punctuation
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subject-verb

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PRONOUN
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ARTICLE

VERB

ADVERB ADJECTIVE
ADVERB

A word or phrase that modifies the meaning of an


adjective, verb, or other adverb, expressing
manner, place, time, or degree
(e.g. gently, here, now, very ).
Adverbs can come before or after the word they describe.
EXAMPLE: I carefully looked everywhere!

What is the Verb? looked

How did you look? carefully = Adverb #1, before the verb

Where did you look? everywhere = Adverb #2, after the verb

Where is that adverb??

adverb

adverb
adverb

adverb adverb
An Adverb Can Also Describe
Another Adverb!
Example: The guest left
quite abruptly.

How did he leave? abruptly = adverb

How abruptly?
quite = adverb describing adverb “What a crazy guest!”
PARTS OF SPEECH
CONJUCTION

NOUN PREPOSITION
punctuation
sentence

subject-verb

parts of speech
PRONOUN
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ARTICLE

VERB

ADVERB ADJECTIVE
ARTICLES

• Are used with certain categories of proper


nouns.
• Are used with common nouns or noun phrases.
• Consist of the indefinite article (a/an) and the
definite article (the).
Rules for Using Articles
These categories of proper nouns do not require “the”
Categories Examples
People’s names John Locke
Cities and states Bangkok, Negri Sembilan
Singular names of countries Indonesia, Australia
Months/days May, Tuesday
Streets Pickering Street, Holland Road
Religious buildings St. Andrew’s Cathedral
Mountains Mount Fuji
Parks Hyde Park
Lakes Lake Victoria
Rules for Using Articles
The proper nouns below require “the”.
Categories Examples
Museums and galleries the Asian Civilization Museum
Buildings the University Cultural Centre
Highways the Pan-Island Expressway
Seas and oceans the South China Sea
Rivers and deserts the Mississippi, the Gobi desert
Periods and events in history the Dark Ages
Bridges the Manhattan Bridge
Countries with United, Union, Kingdom, the United States, the People’s Republic of
Republic China
Island groups ending in (e)s the Philippines
ARTICLES
Specific Reference
Is recognizable by both the writer and the reader through shared knowledge.
The sun rises in the east. (Fact)
The lab report should be submitted today. (Both the writer and the reader know which
lab report is being referred to.)
Nonspecific and Generic Reference
Do not use an article when a generalization is made about an uncountable noun.
Ø Water is scarce in many countries.
Ø Oil is a finite resource.
INDEFINITE ARTICLES
The indefinite article is used to refer to something for the first time or
to refer to a particular member of a group or class.

EXAMPLES:
• Would you like a drink?
• I've finally got a good job.
• An elephant and a mouse fell in love.
• Please hand me an autobiography; any autobiography will do.
EXCEPTIONS
There are a few exceptions to the general rule of using a before words
that start with consonants and an before words that begin with vowels. The
first letter of the word honor, for example, is a consonant, but it’s
unpronounced. In spite of its spelling, the word honor begins with a vowel
sound. Therefore, we use an. Consider the example sentence below for an
illustration of this concept.
My mother is a honest woman.-Incorrect
My mother is an honest woman.-Correct
Similarly, when the first letter of a word is a vowel but is pronounced with
a consonant sound, use a, as in the sample sentence below:
She is an United States Senator.-Incorrect
She is a United States Senator.-Correct
This holds true with acronyms and initialisms, too: an LCD display, a UK-
based company, an HR department, a URL.
PARTS OF SPEECH
CONJUCTION

NOUN PREPOSITION
punctuation
sentence

subject-verb

parts of speech
PRONOUN
tenses

about
ARTICLE

VERB

ADVERB ADJECTIVE
ADJECTIVE

 Adjectives are words that describe nouns


 Adjectives tell the reader how much—or how
many—of something you’re talking about, which
thing you want passed to you, or which kind of
something you want.

Example:
Please use three white flowers in the arrangement.
PARTS OF SPEECH
CONJUCTION

NOUN PREPOSITION
punctuation
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subject-verb

parts of speech
PRONOUN
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ARTICLE

VERB

ADVERB ADJECTIVE
TENSES

The word Tense is derived from latin


word “tempus” which means time. A

parts of speech
punctuation
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verb indicates the time of an action,
event or condition by changing its
form.
sentence
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subject-verb
TENSES

tenses
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CLASSIFICATION OF TENSES
BASED ON TIME FRAME-
1. Present Tense: Present tense expresses an
unchanging, repeated or reoccurring action or
situation that exists only now. It can also represent a
widespread truth.
2. Past Tense: Past tense expresses an action or
situation that was started and finished in the past.
3. Future Tense: Future tense expresses an action or
situation that will occur in the future.
CLASSIFICATION OF TENSES
BASED ON ASPECT-
1. Indefinite Tense: The indefinite tenses or simple tenses
describe an action but do not state whether the action is
finished.
2. Continuous Tense: The continuous tenses, incomplete tenses
or progressive tenses describe an unfinished action.
3. Perfect Tense: The complete tenses, or perfect tenses,
describe a finished action.
4. Perfect Continuous Tense: To examine the complete tenses
and incomplete tenses, to describe an action which was in
progress and then finished.
TENSES - RULES
Perfect
Progressive
Simple forms Perfect forms Progressive
forms
forms

have/has
am/is/are+Ist have/has+3rd
Present Ist form+s/es been+Ist
form+ing form
form+ing

was/were+Ist had been+Ist


Past 2nd form had+3rd form
form+ing form+ing

Will have
will/shall+Ist Will be+Ist Will have+3rd
Future been+Ist
form form+ing form
form+ing
PRESENT TENSE
1. Present Indefinite Tense: The simple present is used to describe an
action, an event or condition that is occurring in the present, at the
moment of speaking or writing.
For example:-
- I play.
- He/she plays.
2. Present Continuous Tense: The present continuous emphasises the
continuing nature of an act, event, or condition.
For example:-
- I am playing.
- He/she is playing.
PRESENT TENSE
3. Present Perfect Tense: The present perfect tense is used to describe
action that began in the past and continues into the present or has just
been completed.
For example:-
- I have played.
- He/she has played.
4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense: The present perfect continuous is
used to describe an action, event, or condition that has begun in the
past and continuous into present.
For example:-
- I/You have been playing.
- He/she has been playing.
PAST TENSE
1. Past Indefinite Tense: The simple past is used to describe an
action, an event or condition that occurred in the past.
For example:-
- I played.
- He/she played.
2. Past Continuous Tense: The past continuous tense is used to
describe actions ongoing in the past.
For example:-
- I was playing.
- He/she was playing.
PAST TENSE
3. Past Perfect Tense: The past perfect tense is used to refer to actions
that took place and were completed in the past.
For example:-
- I had played.
- He/she had played.
4. Past Perfect Continuous Tense: The past perfect continuous tense is
used to indicate that a continuing action in the past began before
another past action began or interrupted the first action.
For example:-
- I had been playing.
- He/she had been playing.
FUTURE TENSE
1. Future Indefinite Tense: The simple future is used to refer the
actions that will take place after the act of speaking or writing.
For example:-
- I shall be playing.
- He/she will be playing.
2. Future Continuous Tense: The future continuous tense is used to
describe actions ongoing in the future. The future progressive is
used to refer to continuing action that will occur in the future.
For example:-
- I shall be playing.
- He/she will be playing.
FUTURE TENSE
3. Future Perfect Tense: The future perfect is used to refer to an action
that will be completed sometime in the future before another action
takes place.
For example:-
- I shall have played.
- He/she will have played.
4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense: The future perfect continuous tense is
used to indicate a continuing action that will be completed at some
specified time in the future.
For example:-
- I shall have been playing.
- He/she will have been playing.
sentence
punctuation
subject-verb
TENSES

tenses
parts of speech

about
SUBJECT – VERB AGREEMENT
Subject-verb agreement means your subject
and verb must match, or agree, in number.

parts of speech
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• If you have a singular subject, then you must use a
singular verb.
• The dog barks at every sound he hears.
• If you have a plural subject, then you must use a
plural verb.
• The dogs bark at every sound they hear.
SUBJECT – VERB AGREEMENT
It is important to know how your singular and plural
subjects and verbs are formed!

parts of speech
punctuation

• For your subject, which is a noun


sentence

subject-verb
tenses

about
• The singular form does not end in an –s
• The dog barks at every sound it hears.
• The plural form ends in an –s
• The dogs bark at every sound they hear.
• For your verb
• The singular form ends in an –s
• The dog barks at every sound it hears.
• The plural form does not end in an –s
• The dogs bark at every sound they hear.
SOME TROUBLE SPOTS
Phrases and Subject is
words between Indefinite Verb comes
subject and verb Pronoun before subject

2 4 5

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3
Compound
1 Subject
Single unit
6
Verb is form of having multiple Subject is
be, have or do parts collective noun

7
THE VERB IS A FORM OF BE, HAVE, OR DO.
Make sure a linking verb agrees with its subject, not with
the word or phrase that describes the subject.

• Incorrect: The worst backyard pest are squirrels.


• Correct: The worst backyard pest is squirrels.
WORDS OR PHRASES COME BETWEEN THE SUBJECT & VERB.

• Prepositional Phrases
• Incorrect: The number of students have remained consistent.
• Correct: The number of students has remained consistent.

• Relative Clauses
• Incorrect: The dog who likes to chase my cats have run away.
• Correct: The dog who likes to chase my cats has run away.
THERE IS A COMPOUND SUBJECT JOINED BY AND, OR, NOR.

• If joined by and, then subjects are combined and become plural, so verb must also be
plural.
• Incorrect: Jack and Jill walks up the hill.
• Correct: Jack and Jill walk up the hill.

• If joined by or /nor, then the subjects are not combined, so the verb must agree with
whichever subject is closest to it.
• Either the microphone or the speakers are broken.
• Either the speakers or the microphone is broken.
• Neither the teacher nor the students want to stay late.
• Neither the students nor the teacher wants to stay late.
THE SUBJECT IS AN INDEFINITE PRONOUN.

Most indefinite pronouns are either always singular or always


plural.
• Beware: indefinite pronouns are often followed by a prepositional
phrase or dependent clause.
• Incorrect: Each of my classes are difficult in some way.
• Correct: Each of my classes is difficult in some way.
THE VERB COMES BEFORE THE SUBJECT.

• Sentences that ask a question.


• Is the book in the library?
• Turn the sentence into a statement.
• The book is in the library.

• Sentences that begin with Here or There.


• Here is your textbook.
• There are three more exams scheduled for this class.
• Turn the sentence around.
• Your textbook is here.
• Three more exams are scheduled for this class.
THE SUBJECT IS A COLLECTIVE NOUN.

Most collective nouns refer to a group acting as one unit; therefore,


they are treated as singular and must have a singular verb.

• The family rides bikes together each day.


• The team practices every Saturday.
SINGLE UNIT WITH MULTIPLE PARTS

Watch for words that name something that we think of as a single unit,
but that actually consist of two parts; these are always plural.

• Scissors, pants, trousers, tweezers.


• The scissors are on the table.
• The pants need ironing.
• If you add “pair of” to the front of any of these, then they become singular.
• The pair of scissors is on the table.
• The pair of pants needs ironing.
SOME TROUBLE SPOTS
Phrases and Subject is
words between Indefinite Verb comes
subject and verb Pronoun before subject

2 4 5

parts of speech
punctuation
sentence

subject-verb
tenses

about
3
Compound
1 Subject
Single unit
6
Verb is form of having multiple Subject is
be, have or do parts collective noun

7
PUNCTUATION
Punctuations helps the reader to understand a sentence through
visual means other than just letters of the alphabet and
they help in understanding and correct reading of sentences.

parts of speech
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subject-verb
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They are used in clarifying meaning in text by
separating strings of word into clauses, phrases and
sentences.
It also means using various symbols and signs in
writing and printing to easily make sense of texts or
any written form.
PUNCTUATION
01 Full Stop 05 Semicolon 09 Parenthesis

parts of speech
punctuation
02 06 10
sentence

Question Colon Brackets

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about
Mark

03 Exclamation
mark
07 Dash 11 Braces

04 Comma 08 Hyphen 12 Apostrophe

13 Quotation Mark 14 Ellipses


PERIOD OR FULL STOP (.)
• The full stop is placed at end of declarative statements, statements
thought to be complete after many abbreviations.
• In other words, saying period at the end of sentences is a way of
expressing finality of what is being said. It depicts the end of a
sentence that is not a question or an exclamation.
• Examples- 1. He went to the market.
2. He is sleeping now.
QUESTION MARK (?)
• A punctuation symbol (?) written at the end of a sentence or phrase to
indicate a direct question, to express doubt or uncertainty about
something.
• Also called interrogation point.
• Example- 1. Did you go to school today?
2. Who could have done such a thing?
EXCLAMATION MARK (!)

• A mark (!) used especially after an interjection or exclamation to


indicate forceful utterance or strong feeling.
• People tend to use a lot of exclamation marks in informal writing such
as emails or text messages, but they should be avoided in formal
writing.
• An exclamation mark can also be used in brackets after a statement
to show that the writer finds it funny or ironic.
• Examples- 1. “Look up there!”, she yelled.
2. Hello! how are you?
COMMA (,)
• The symbol (,), a mark of punctuation used for indicating a division in a
sentence, i.e. separating a word, phrase, or clause, especially when
such a division is accompanied by a slight pause or is to be noted in
order to give order to the sequential elements of the sentence. it is also
used to separate items in a list, mark off thousands in numerals,
separate types or levels of information in bibliographic and other
data.
• Examples- 1. Although i am very busy, I still find time for
fun.
2. English is my favorite subject, I am certain I
will get an ‘A’.
SEMICOLON(;)
• The semicolon (;) is a punctuation mark that separates major sentence
elements. A semicolon can be used between two closely related independent
clauses, provided they are not already joined by a coordinating conjunction.
• When two or more semicolons are used within a single construction, all
constituents are at the same level, unlike commas, which can separate, for
example, subordinate clauses from main clauses.
• Examples-
1. Several fast food restaurants can be found within the following
cities: London, England; Paris, France; Dublin, Ireland; Madrid, Spain.
2. I went to the basketball court; I was told it was closed for cleaning.
COLON(:)
• A colon (:) is used after an independent clause to add information that
helps illustrate or clarify what it says. it is most commonly used to
introduce a list, but it can also introduce words, phrases, or entire
clauses that complete the meaning of the clause that came before it.
• It is a complete sentence whether what follows the colon is another
sentence or not.
• Examples-1. I had a rough weekend: I had chest pain and spent all
Saturday and Sunday in the emergency room.
2. I have three sisters: Melissa, Rose, and Carol.
DASH(-)
• A dash (-) is a punctuation mark used primarily for separating
parenthetical statements from the main sentence of an article.
• Dashes are used to separate groups of words, not to separate parts of
words like a hyphen does.
• There are two types of dashes-en dashes and em dashes.
• em dashes can replace parentheses at the end of a sentence or when
multiple commas appear in a parenthetical phrase. em dashes are more
emphatic than colons. when you want to generate strong emotion in your
writing or create a more casual tone, use em dashes. example- he is afraid
of two things: spiders and bugs.
he is afraid of two things—spiders and bugs.
• en dashes are slightly shorter in length than em dashes. the en dash is
often used to indicate spans of time or ranges of numbers. in this
context, the dash should be interpreted as meaning either “to” or
“through.”
• examples- 1. the teacher assigned pages 101–181 for
tonight’s reading material.
2. the scheduled window for the cable installation is
1:00–3:00pm.

• the en dash may also be used to indicate a connection between two


words.
example- the nobel prize–winning author will be reading from her
book at the library tonight.
HYPHEN(-)
• The hyphen (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate
syllables of a single word. the use of hyphens is called hyphenation. The
hyphen should not be confused with dashes (‒, –, —, ―), which are longer
and have different uses
• Hyphens are often used to tell the ages of people and things. A handy rule,
whether writing about years, months, or any other period of time, is to use
hyphens.
• Examples- 1. We have a two-year-old child.
2. 3:15-3:45 p.m.
3. 1999-2016
4. 300-325 people.
5. A five-and-one-half-foot-long sign.
PARENTHESIS ()
• A phrase, often explanatory or qualifying, inserted into a passage with
which it is not grammatically connected, and marked off by brackets,
dashes, etc.
• A parenthesis is a remark that is made in the middle of a piece of
speech or writing, and which gives a little more information about the
subject being discussed.
• Example- 1. Arjun is flying to New Delhi (he grew up there) next
week.
2. Paris (my favorite city!) is on my list of vacation
destinations.
BRACKETS ( [ ] )

• Brackets ( [ ] ), sometimes known as square brackets, are similar to


parentheses in that they are used to contain information that does not
impact the overall grammatical structure of the sentence. However,
rather than indicating information that is supplemental or incidental,
brackets are usually used within quoted speech to indicate that a
writer has added material to the quotation to provide clarifying or
explanatory information.
• Examples- 1. “they [the CEO's of the two major corporations] have
agreed on a time frame for the historic merger.”
2. “She [the governor] insisted that the restructured budget would
not result in funding shortfalls for schools.”
BRACES ( { } )
• Braces ({ }), also known as curly brackets, are used in various programming
languages, certain mathematical expressions, and some musical notation.
they should never be used in place of parentheses (()) or square brackets ([ ])
both of which serve different functions and play more important roles in
English texts. braces are not to be confused with parentheses or brackets ([]).
• Examples- 1. The grouping of terms within a mathematical problem, in which
the brace serves as the outermost mark:
{a + b [c + d (e + f)]}.
2. different notation for the function of a fractional part:
{x} = frac (x).
APOSTROPHE ( ’ )
• An apostrophe (’) is a punctuation mark that primarily serves to
indicate either grammatical possession or the contraction of two words.
It can also sometimes be used to pluralize irregular nouns, such as
single letters, abbreviations, and single-digit numbers.
• For all singular nouns add apostrophe “s” to the end
• Examples:-
1. Sean’s book
2. Charles’s pet
3. dog’s bed
• For plural nouns not ending in “s” add apostrophe “s” to the end
Examples:-
1. children’s room
2. people’s choice
3. group’s decision
• For plural nouns ending in “s” add apostrophe after “s” to end of
word
Examples:-
1. cats’ bowl
2. students’ room
3. kids’ pool.
QUOTATION MARKS ( “ ” ‘ ’ )

• Quotation marks (" "), sometimes referred to as quotes or inverted


commas, are punctuation marks used in pairs to set off a quotation or
a piece of dialogue. They are used to show the beginning and the
end of a quotation, to show that something is a title, to show that a
word or phrase is being used in a special way, etc.
• Examples- 1. “I hope you will be here," he said.
2. He said, “I don't care."
ELLIPSES (…)
• Ellipses are used to omit a word, phrase, line, paragraph, or more from
a quoted passage. Ellipses save space or remove material that is less
relevant. They are useful in getting right to the point without delay or
distraction.
• Examples-
1. Full quotation: “Today, after hours of careful thought, we vetoed
the bill."
With ellipsis: “Today … we vetoed the bill.”
2. I don't know… I'm not sure.
PUNCTUATION
01 Full Stop 05 Semicolon 09 Parenthesis

parts of speech
punctuation
02 06 10
sentence

Question Colon Brackets

subject-verb
tenses

about
Mark

03 Exclamation
mark
07 Dash 11 Braces

04 Comma 08 Hyphen 12 Apostrophe

13 Quotation Mark 14 Ellipses


SENTENCE STRUCTURES
In grammar, sentence structure, also known as sentence composition, is
the classification of sentences an the basis of the number and type of
clauses present in a sentence’s syntax.

parts of speech
punctuation
sentence

subject-verb
tenses

about
TYPE TYPE TYPE TYPE
1 2 3 4
SIMPLE COMPOUND COMPLEX COMPOUND
SENTENCE SENTENCE SENTENCE – COMPLEX
SENTENCE
BEFORE WE GO ANY FURTHER…
• Independent clause: An independent clause can stand alone as a
sentence. It contains a subject and a verb and is a complete idea.
For example : I like spaghetti.

• Dependent clause: A dependent clause is not a complete sentence. It


must be attached to an independent clause to become complete. This is
also known as a subordinate clause.
For example : Although I like spaghetti,…
SIMPLE SENTENCES
• A simple sentence contains a subject and a verb, and it may also have
an object and modifiers.
• It is made up of one independent clause and no dependent clauses.
Therefore, it forms a complete thought.

• Examples:-
Jack kicked the ball.
Joe had a sandwich for breakfast.
COMPOUND SENTENCES
• A compound sentence consists of at least two independent clauses.
• These two independent clauses can be combined with a comma and
a coordinating conjunction, a semicolon with a conjunctive adverb or just a
semicolon.
• A compound sentence does not require a dependent clause.
• Examples:-
I like to drink Pepsi, but Jim likes to drink Sprite.
Bob is handsome; moreover, he is rich.
Some people like football; others like basketball.
SIMPLE SENTENCES WITH COMPOUND ELEMENTS
• Simple sentence can also have compound elements.
For example : Jack and I play football. (Compound Subject)
Joe toasts and butters his bagel. (Compound Verb)
Jack and Jill played in the lawn and ate in the house.
(Compound Subject and Verb)

• These simple sentences should not be confused with compound sentences.


COMPLEX SENTENCES
• A complex sentence consists of at least one independent and one
dependent clause.
• The clauses can appear in any order in the sentence. However, if the
sentence starts with the dependent clause, there should be comma at
the end.
• Examples:-
He built a campfire after the sun set.
After the sun set, we built a campfire.
COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCES
• A compound-complex sentence comprises at least two independent
clauses and at least one dependent clause.
• Examples:-
When the heat comes, the lakes dry up, and the farmers know
that the crops will fail.
I planned to drive to work, but I couldn’t until the mechanic
_____repaired my car.
FUSED SENTENCES AND COMMA SPLICES
• Fused Sentence: A fused sentence (also known as a run-on sentence)
occurs when two independent clauses are joined without any punctuation
or connecting word between them
For example : It was close to fall the trees were losing their leaves.

• Comma Splice: A comma splice occurs when two independent clauses are
joined only by a comma.
For example : It was close to fall, the trees were losing their leaves.
• Both of these things are to be stayed away from at all times.
WHAT TYPE OF SENTENCE TO USE?
Now that we know the four different sentence types , which ones should we
use? Effective communication requires not only that you write complete
sentences, but also that you write sentences that say exactly what you mean.
Try these six guidelines as you decide which sentence types to use and when:-

• Every sentence should provide clear and complete information.


• Most effective sentences are concise.
• Effective sentences stress the main point or the most important detail.
• Your choice of sentences depends on your audience.
• Always consider your purpose for writing before you select a sentence type.
• The rhythm and pacing of your writing is determined by your sentences.
SENTENCE STRUCTURES
In grammar, sentence structure, also known as sentence composition, is
the classification of sentences an the basis of the number and type of
clauses present in a sentence’s syntax.

parts of speech
punctuation
sentence

subject-verb
tenses

about
TYPE TYPE TYPE TYPE
1 2 3 4
SIMPLE COMPOUND COMPLEX COMPOUND
SENTENCE SENTENCE SENTENCE – COMPLEX
SENTENCE
THANK YOU