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# Topics in Magnetism

## II. Models of Ferromagnetism

Anne Reilly
Department of Physics
College of William and Mary
After reviewing this lecture, you should be familiar with:

## 1. General source of ferromagnetism

2. Curie temperature
3. Models of ferromagnetism: Weiss, Heisenberg and Band

## Material from this lecture is taken from Physics of Magnetism by Chikazumi

In ferromagnetic solids, atomic magnetic moments
naturally align with each other. N

## However, strength of ferromagnetic fields

not explained solely by dipole interactions! S

  N
m1  m2
U D  3
r
S

## Estimating m ~ 10-29 Wb m and r ~ 1 Ǻ, UD~10-23 J (small, ~1.3K)

(see Chikazumi, Chp. 1)
In 1907, Weiss developed a theory of effective fields

## Magnetic moments (spins*) in ferromagnetic material aligned in an

internal (Weiss) field:
Hw HW = wM
w=Weiss or molecular field coefficient

## Average total magnetization is:

H (applied) 
 M ( H  wM ) 
0  kT  cos sin d
exp
M  NM 
 M ( H  wM ) 
0  kT  sin d
exp

## *Orbital angular momentum gives negligible contribution to magnetization in solids (quenching)

Weiss Theory of Ferromagnetism

 M ( H  wM ) 
0  kT  cos sin d
exp
 M ( H  wM ) 
M  NM   NML   NML 
 M ( H  wM )   kT 
0  kT 
exp sin d

Langevin function
Consider graphical solution:

## M/Ms Tc is Curie temperature

1 At Tc, spontaneous magnetization
disappears and material become
paramagnetic
0 2
1 NM eff w
T/Tc Tc 
3k
(see Chikazumi, Chp. 6)
Weiss Theory of Ferromagnetism
2
NM eff w
Tc 
3k

## For Iron (Fe), Tc=1063 K (experiment), M=2.2mB (experiment),

And N=8.54 x 1028m-3

## Find w=3.9 x 108

And Hw=0.85 x 109 A/m (107 Oe)

Other materials:
Cobalt (Co), Tc=1404 K
Nickel (Ni), Tc= 631K
Weiss theory is a good phenomenological theory of magnetism,
But does not explain source of large Weiss field.

## Heisenberg and Dirac showed later that ferromagnetism is

a quantum mechanical effect that fundamentally arises from
Coulomb (electric) interaction.
Key: The Exchange Interaction

## •Central for understanding magnetic interactions in solids

•Arises from Coulomb electrostatic interaction and
the Pauli exclusion principle

## Coulomb repulsion Coulomb repulsion

energy high energy lowered

e2
UC  ~ 10 18 J (105 K !)
40 r 2
The Exchange Interaction

## Consider two electrons in an atom:

r12
Hamiltonian: 1 e- e- 2

H  H 1  H 2  H 12 r1 r2

2 Ze 2 +
H1   1  Ze
2me 40 r1
2 2
 Ze
H2   2 
2me 40 r2
2
e
H 12 
40 r12 2 2
j  2  2  2
2
x j y j z j
Using one electron approximation:

s (r1 , r2 ) 
1
1 (r1 )2 (r2 )  2 (r1 )1 (r2 ) singlet
2
A (r1 , r2 ) 
1
1 (r1 )2 (r2 )  2 (r1 )1 (r2 ) triplet
2

## 1,2 are normalized spatial one-electron wavefunctions

We can write energy as:
H 
E

 
E   1* (r1 )2* (r2 )  2* (r1 )1* (r2 ) (H 1  H 2  H 3 )1 (r1 )2 (r2 )  2 (r1 )1 (r2 )d 3r1d 3r2 
1
2

  1* (r1 )H 11 (r1 )d 3r1   2* (r1 )H 12 (r1 )d 3r1
  1* (r2 )H 21 (r2 )d 3r2   2* (r2 )H 22 (r2 )d 3r2 Individual energies
(ionization) = 2I1 + 2I2

  1* (r1 )2* (r2 )H 121 (r1 )2 (r2 )d 3r1d 3r2 
Coulomb repulsion = 2K12   2* (r1 )1* (r2 )H 122 (r1 )1 (r2 )d 3r1d 3r2

  1* (r1 )2* (r2 )H 122 (r1 )1 (r2 )d 3r1d 3r2
  2* (r1 )1* (r2 )H 121 (r1 )2 (r2 )d 3r1d 3r2 Exchange terms =2 J12
We can write energy as:

E  I1  I 2  K12  J12

## Parallel alignment of spins lowers energy by:

e2 1
J12      
* * 3 3
( r ) ( r
2 2  ) ( r
 2 1 1 2) ( r ) d r d r2
40 r1  r2
1 1 1

## (if J12 is positive)

You can add spin wavefunctions explicitly into previous definitions:
(singlet)
s (r1 , r2 ) 
1
1 (r1 )2 (r2 )  2 (r1 )1 (r2 ) (1)   (2)   (2)   (1)
2
  (1)  (2) 
 
A (r1 , r2 ) 
1
1 (r1 )2 (r2 )  2 (r1 )1 (r2 )  (1)   (2)   (2)   (1)
2   (1)  (2) 
   
 1  (triplet)
          Spin +1/2
 0
 0
        

Spin -1/2
1
You can add spin wavefunctions explicitly into previous defintions.
(singlet)
s (r1 , r2 ) 
1
1 (r1 )2 (r2 )  2 (r1 )1 (r2 ) (1)   (2)   (2)   (1)
2
  (1)  (2) 
 
A (r1 , r2 ) 
1
1 (r1 )2 (r2 )  2 (r1 )1 (r2 )  (1)   (2)   (2)   (1)
2   (1)  (2) 
 1 
   
          Spin +1/2 (triplet)
 0
 0
        

Spin -1/2
1
Heisenberg and Dirac showed that the 4 spin states above are eigenstates
of operator S1  S 2
Heisenberg Model

Heisenberg and Dirac showed that the 4 spin states above are
Eigenstates of operator S1  S 2

S,   ,
(Pauli spin matrices)
2
Hamiltonian of interaction can be written as (called exchange
energy or Hamiltonian):

H ex  2 JSi  S j
J is the exchange parameter (integral)
Assume a lattice of spins that can take on values +1/2 and -1/2
(Ising model)

## The energy considering only nearest-neighbor interactions:

n n
U  2 JSi  S j  2m B H m  S j
j 1 j 1

to rest of spins

## Find, for a 3D bcc lattice: kTc  2.446 J

For more on Ising model, see
http://www.physics.cornell.edu/sss/ising/ising.html
http://bartok.ucsc.edu/peter/java/ising/keep/ising.html
Band (Stoner) Model

## Heisenberg model does not completely explain ferromagnetism in

metals. A band model is needed.
I S n
Assumes: E (k )  E (k ) 
N
I S n
E (k )  E (k ) 
N
Is is Stoner parameter and describes energy
reduction due to electron spin correlation
n , n is density of up, down spins
Band (Stoner) Model

n  n N
Define R  (spin excess) note: M  m B R
N V
~
Then
E
( k )  E ( k )  I S R / 2 ~ I s (n  n )
E (k )  E (k ) 
~
E (k )  E (k )  I S R / 2 2N

## Spin excess given by Fermi statistics:

1
R
N
f
k

(k )  f  (k )

f  ,   ~
 exp E (k )  I s R / 2  EF / kT 
1
Band (Stoner) Model
Let R be small, use Taylor expansion:
 x 
3
2
g ( x  x / 2)  g ( x  x / 2)   g ' ( x)x  g ' ' ' ( x)   ...
3!  2 
with x  I s R
1 f (k ) 1  f (k ) 3
R    ~ ( I s R)   ~ 3 s ( I R ) 3
 ...
N k E (k ) 24 N k E (k )

 f  V  f  V ~
k  E~   (2 )3 N  dk  E~   2 3 N  dk ( ( E  EF ))
(at T=0)
V
  D( EF ) f(E)
2
D.O.S.: density of states at Fermi level
EF E
Band (Stoner) Model

Let D E F  
~ V
D( EF ) Density of states per atom per spin
2N
Third order terms
R  DEF I s R  O(3)
Then
~

R(1  DEF I s )  O
~ (3)

When is R> 0?
DEF I s  1
~
1  DEF I s  0
~ or
Stoner Condition for Ferromagnetism

## For Fe, Co, Ni this condition is true

Doesn’t work for rare earths, though
Heisenberg versus Band (itinerant or free electron) model

## Band theory correctly describes magnetization because it assumes

magnetic moment arises from mobile d-band electrons.

## Band theory, however, does not account for temperature

dependence of magnetization: Heisenberg model is needed
(collective spin-spin interactions, e.g., spin waves)

## To describe electron spin correlations and electron transport

properties (predicted by band theory) with a unified theory is still
an unsolved problem in solid state physics.