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# VOLLEYBALL

What is Volleyball?

## -is a game for two teams, usually of six players, in which a

large ball is hit by hand over a high net, the aim is to score
points by making the ball reach the ground on the opposite’s
side of the court.
-a team sport.
History
Volleyball was invented in 1895 by William C. Morgan, who was a
physical education director of the YMCA in Holyoke, Massachusetts.
He developed the game to provide an indoor game for the winter
months in which relatively large groups of men could participate in a
small gym. The principal feature of tennis were employed, but the
net was raised and the players struck the bladder of a basketball
with their hands in stead of racquets.
Venue
-The game is played on a volleyball court 18 meters (59 feet) long
and 9 meters (29.5 feet) wide, divided into two 9 m x 9 m halves by a
one-meter (40-inch) wide net placed so that the top of the net is
2.43 meters (7 feet 11 5/8 inches) above the center of the court for
men’s competition, and 2.24 meters (7 feet 4 1/8 inches) for
women’s competition. These heights are varied for veterans and
junior competitions. The minimum ceiling height should be 23 feet,
though they should preferably by higher.
Equipment
Ball – the official size of a volleyball is between 25.6 and 26.4 inches
in circumference and between 9.1 and 9.8 ounces in weight. The
circumference should be 65-67 cm and weight should be 260-280 g.
Net – placed directly above the center line, 7 feet 4 inches above the
ground for women and 8 feet above the ground for men.
Poles – should be set at 36 feet apart, 3 feet further out from the
sidelines.
Positions and Roles
The position in volleyball determine what your role is out the court during a game. Each
player has a specific job to do and each position works with the teammates to make the
best play possible.
Setter – is the backbone of the offense and makes the decisions about who gets the
ball. She touches the ball on the second contact and delivers it to her/his hitters. Setters
perform a very important job during the game. Their responsibility included helping
hitters to prepare for completing attack hits. Setters have to be provided with proper
training in order to cope with their responsibilities successfully.
Outside or Left side Hitters – is a great all around player. Not only does the outside need
great ball-hanging skills, but he/she needs to be a solid hitter and blocker.
Middle Hitter – also known as the middle blocker. The middle player is responsible for
completing attack hits as well as blocking attacks of the opposing team. The middle
hitter occupies the central part of the playing court. Middle hitters often pairs with the
outside and right-side hitters. As a rule, very tall volleyball players are selected for the
position of the middle hitter. A great middle blocker is a major key to your teams’
defense.
Right-side or Opposite Hitters – also known as the week-side hitter and backup attacker.
The responsibilities of this player include both attacking and blocking the attack of the
opposite team’s outside. Left-handed players are often selected for this position since it
is easier for them to hit the ball from the right side of the court.
Defensive Players – usually play in the black-row of the court. There are two main types
of defensive players in the sport of indoor volleyball. These are libero and defensive
specialist. Defensive players are responsible for passing, setting as well as hitting the
ball during game.
Libero – plays in the back row and has impeccable ball control. The libero needs to be a
great passer and an even better digger. She/he is all over the court to keep the ball in th
air for her/his team to create scoring chances.
Defensive Specialist – plays in the back row of the court. A can also use a DS to
substitute players from row of the court.
Mechanics
◦ A player may not touch the net but they may cross the center lines as long as
they do not interfere, pose a safety hazard, or go a considerable distance.
◦ Six players constitute a team: three frontline players and three backline
players.
◦ The ball may contact any part of the body. During the first contact, some
successive contacts (2 hits) are permitted as longs as it is a single attempt to
play the ball.
◦ The ball must be cleanly handled and not held in a prolonged manner such as
carrying or throwing the ball.
◦ Kicking is allowed.
Contacts and Contacting the Ball
◦ Each team is allowed to have maximum of three touches before hitting the
ball over the net.
◦ Same player can not hit the ball twice in a row.
◦ Block does not count as a touch.
◦ Players are not allowed to catch, hold or throw the ball.
◦ Players are not allowed to hit the or block the opponents serve.
◦ Attacking ball which is coming over the net is illegal, if it has not broken the
plane pf the net.
◦ Player is allowed to swing the ball when it breaks the plane of the net.
Antennas and Back Row Attack
◦ It is allowed to play the ball off the net. It is fault if the ball contacts net
outside antennas.
◦ The ball has to travel between the antennas when flying to the other side of
the net.
◦ Back row players can not attack the ball front row. If they attack, they have to
perform the jump behind the attack line. (10 feet line, 3 meter line)
◦ The ball has to be completely above the net for it to be an illegal attack.
In or Out?
◦ Referee calls the ball “in”, if any part of it hits the lines.
◦ The ball is out if the ball lands outside the boundary lines.
◦ The ball is out if the antenna any of the net or cables outside the antennas, a
referee stand or poles or the ceiling.
Rules Violation
◦ The back row player performs the attack front row.
◦ The back row player blocks the ball having any part of the body above the net
and touching the ball. This referee just called one touch on the block of
defender.
◦ The player double contacts the ball when setting the ball except when the ball
hits the net and it pushes the net to the opposing player.
◦ Stepping on the back line when serving the ball.
◦ Reaching over the net to block the ball is allowed, if the other side has used all
the three touches. It is false, if the opposing team has not used all the
touches.
Scoring
The failure of receiving team to return the ball legally over the net into the
opponent’s court scores one point for the serving team. A game is won when a
team scores a 2-point lead with 15 or more points. The score for a forfeited
game is 15-0. A match is won by the team that first scores two or three games.
Rally scoring eliminates side-out and thus a point is scored on every serve.
Fundamental Skills and Techniques
The most fundamental skill to be learned is the ability to pass the ball to a
teammate, which is required on almost all plays. A forearm pass should be used
to receive serves, low balls, and spikes. The forearm pass is used to recover to
opponents’ attack called a “dig.” A set is a high pass that is generally the second
play by a team to relay the all for the spiker. A spike is a ball hit forcibly from a
height above the net. A kill is a spike that is impossible to return. Blocking is a
defensive play that attempts to stop the returning of the ball over the net.
Skills
Serving – is what always starts the game and helps to keep the game. There are
two basic types of serves. One is overhand; where the player will throw the ball
in the air first, then hit it. The second is underhand, where the server will hold
the ball and swing their other arm underneath the ball to hit it. There are a
variety of other serves beyond these basics, all which help to get the ball over
the net, and get the game going.
Pass or reception – is usually set up by the setter of the game. It is used in order
to take the ball and give it to the other players on your own team. They will then
have the ability to put the ball to the other side like they want to. You can either
pass by the forearm or by hitting the ball overhead.