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Ecosystem goods and services (EGS) are

fundamental to human activity.

Farmers, foresters, fishers and many others


harvest nature’s bounty, while others make a
living transforming and selling these goods.
Natural ecosystem structures and
functions produce goods and services
that benefit people—ecosystems
produce the air we breathe, filter the
water we drink, and recycle the
nutrients that allow all things to grow.

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Humans impact
the physical
environment in
many ways
The effects of human activity on the environment
stretch back thousands of years, to the time of our
very earliest ancestors. Since Homo sapiens first
walked the earth, we have been modifying the
environment around us through agriculture, travel
and eventually through urbanization and
commercial networks.

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At this point in earth’s physical history, our impact on the
environment is so substantial that scientists believe
“pristine nature,” or ecosystems untouched by human
intervention, no longer exist. In ways both positive and
negative—and likely in more ways than you’d even think—
human civilization and technology have altered our planet
forever. Consider these five tangible impacts our species
has had on the environment, and whether you’re one who
will advance their effects or intercede to halt them.
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1. THE POPULATION BOMB

Accommodating population growth has been a


root cause for much of the impact we’ve had on
our environment.

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2. AGRICULTURE MODIFICATION

The demand to feed a growing


human population has facilitated
notable advances in agriculture,
which was the first major human
innovation to enable our survival
as a species.
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3. DEFORESTATION…AND
REFORESTATION
• Growing populations have to be housed, which means they
seek more space to build homes and cities. This often
involves clearing forests to make room for urban and
suburban development, as well as to provide building
materials.

• Currently, it is estimated that 18 million acres of trees are


clear-cut every year to create space for development and to
be used in wood products.
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EFFECTS OF DEFORESTATION
.
 Decrease of oxygen levels
and increase of greenhouse
gases
 Elevated risk of erosion
 Destruction of Animal
Habitats

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REFORESTATION

Reforestation efforts seek to replace as much


forest land as possible every year, and it is
currently estimated that about 40 percent of the
trees removed each year are being replaced

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4. POLLUTION
• Human activities contribute to air pollution, or the
emission of harmful substances into the air.
• it is generally accepted that air pollution can indeed
cause public health problems and also harm plant
and animal life

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Pollution isn’t just limited to the air. It
can affect soil or waterways and can
come from human waste, industrial
chemicals and other sources. These
toxins can exert tremendous effects on
the natural world, leading to
environmental degradation and
problems like acid rain and harmful
algal blooms in the ocean.
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5. GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE
CHANGE
• Among the most critically impactful ways that
humans have affected the earth is our
extraction and consumption of fossil fuels and
their attendant CO2 emissions.

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ENERGY SOURCE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
1.Oil and Petroleum 1. Refining and consuming
produce air, water, and solid
waste pollutants

2. Natural Gas 2. Produces fewer pollutants than oil and coal,


and less CO2

3. Coal 3. Produces CO2 and other air, water and


solid waste15Pollutant.
ENERGY SOURCE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
4.Biomass: Wood and 4. Burning emits CO2 and other
organic waste including Pollutants. Possible toxic byproducts
societal waste from societal waste

Loss of habitat when trees


harvested, unless sustainable
tree farms

5. Hydro-electric 5. Destruction of farmlands, dislocation of people,


loss of habitat,
16 alteration of stream flows
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WHAT SHOULD WE DO?

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1. Curbing Global Warming

2. Creating the Clean Energy Future

3. Reviving the World's Oceans

4. Defending Endangered Wildlife and Wild


Places 19
THANK YOU!