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Dr. Voon Chun Hong

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Chapter Objectives

momentum of a body

Apply the principles of linear and angular impulse

and momentum to solve rigid-body planar kinetic

problems that involve force, velocity, and time

Discuss application of the conservation of

momentum

Chapter Outline

2. Principle of Impulse and Momentum

3. Conservation of Momentum

8.1 Linear and Angular Momentum

respect to an inertial x-y reference plane

Linear Momentum

The linear momentum of a rigid body is

determined by L = ∑mivi

momentum is a vector quantity having a

magnitude mvG, and a direction defined by vG

8.1 Linear and Angular Momentum

Angular Momentum

Consider the body subjected to general planar

motion

Arbitrary point P has a velocity vP, and body has

an angular velocity ω

The velocity of the ith particle is

vi v P vi / P v P r

H P i r mi vi

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

8.1 Linear and Angular Momentum

Angular Momentum

Using Cartesian vectors,

H P i mi y(vP ) x mi x(vP ) y mir 2

mass m of the body,

m

H P y dm (vP ) x x dm(v ) r dm

m

P y

m

2

8.1 Linear and Angular Momentum

Angular Momentum

The last integral represents the body’s moment of

inertia computed about the z axis, IP = ∫r2 dm

H P y m ( v P ) x x m ( v P ) y I P

simpler form if point P coincides

with the mass center G for the

body where

x y0

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

8.1 Linear and Angular Momentum

Angular Momentum

Thus H G I G

It states that the angular momentum of the body

computed about G is equal to the product of

moment of inertia of the body about an axis

passing through G and the body’s angular

velocity.

Hp can also written as

H P ym(vG ) x x m(vG ) y I G

8.1 Linear and Angular Momentum

Translation

When a rigid body of mass m is subjected to

rectilinear or curvilinear translation, its mass

center has a velocity of vG = v and ω = 0

The linear momentum and the angular

momentum computed about G is

L mvG

HG 0

Since d is the moment arm,

HA = (d)(mvG)

8.1 Linear and Angular Momentum

When a rigid body is rotating about a fixed axis

passing through point O, the linear momentum

and the angular momentum about G are

L mvG

H G I G

Noting that L (or vG) is always

perpendicular to rG,

H O I G rG (mvG )

8.1 Linear and Angular Momentum

Equation can be simplified by substituting

vG = rGω, and using parallel-axis theorem

Hence,

H O I O

When a rigid body is subjected

to general plane motion,

L mvG

H G I G

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

8.1 Linear and Angular Momentum

When angular momentum is computed about a

point A located either on or off the body,

H A I G (d )(mvG )

8.2 Principle of Impulse and Momentum

The equation of translational motion for a rigid

body can be written as ∑F = maG = m (dvG/dt)

Since the mass of the body is constant,

d

F dt

(mv G )

= t1, vG = (vG)1 to t = t2, vG = (vG)2 yields

t2

F dt m( vG ) 2 m( vG )1

t1

8.2 Principle of Impulse and Momentum

This equation is referred to as the principle of

linear impulse and momentum.

the external force system which acts on the body

during the time interval t1 to t2 equal to the

change in the linear momentum of the body

during the time interval.

8.2 Principle of Impulse and Momentum

If the body has general plane motion we can

write ∑MG = IGα = IG(dω/dt)

Since the moment of inertia is constant,

d

M G dt ( I G )

Multiplying both sides by dt and integrating from t

= t1, ω = ω1 to t = t2, ω = ω2 gives

t2

M G dt I G2 I G1

t1

8.2 Principle of Impulse and Momentum

In a similar manner, for rotation about a fixed

axis passing through point O, ∑MO = IOα when

integrated becomes

t2

M O dt I O2 I O1

t1

angular impulse and momentum.

They state that the sum of the angular impulses

acting on the body during the time interval t1 to t2

is equal to the change in the body’s angular

momentum during this time interval.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

8.2 Principle of Impulse and Momentum

To summarize the preceding concepts,

m(vGx )1 Fx dt m(vGx ) 2

t2

t1

m(vGy )1 Fy dt m(vGy ) 2

t2

t1

I G1 M G dt I G2

t2

t1

8.2 Principle of Impulse and Momentum

+ =

8.2 Principle of Impulse and Momentum

For system of connected bodies

momentum x1 impulse x (1 2) momentum x 2

syst .linear syst .linear syst .linear

momentum y1 impulse y (1 2) momentum y 2

syst . angular syst . angular syst . angular

momentum O1 impulse O (1 2) momentum O 2

8.2 Principle of Impulse and Momentum

Free Body Diagram

Establish x, y, z inertial frame of reference and

draw the free-body diagram.

Establish the direction and sense of the initial

and final velocity of the body’s mass center, vG,

and the body’s angular velocity ω

Assume that the sense of its components is in

the direction of the positive inertial coordinates if

any of these two is unknown.

Compute the moment of inertia IG or IO

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

8.2 Principle of Impulse and Momentum

Principle of Impulse and Momentum

Apply the three scalar equations of impulse and

momentum.

The angular momentum of a rigid body rotating

about a fixed axis is the moment of mvG plus IGω

about the axis.

All the forces acting on the body’s free-body

diagram will create an impulse.

8.2 Principle of Impulse and Momentum

Procedure for Analysis

Principle of Impulse and Momentum

Forces that are functions of time must be integrated to

obtain the impulse.

Principle of angular impulse and momentum is used to

eliminate unknown impulsive forces that are parallel or

pass through a common axis.

Kinematics

If more than 3 equations are needed, we relate the

velocity of the body’s mass center to the body’s angular

velocity using kinematics.

Kinematic (velocity) diagrams are helpful in obtaining the

necessary relation.

Example 8.2

supported at its center. If it is acted upon by a

constant couple moment of 6 N.m and a force of 50

N which is applied to a cord wrapped around its

periphery, determine the angular velocity of the disk

two seconds after starting from rest. Also, what are

the force components of reaction at the pin?

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 8.2

Solution

Free Body Diagrams

The loading causes the disk to rotate clockwise.

The moment of inertia of the disk about its fixed axis

of rotation is

1 2 1 100

I A mr (0.25)

2

2 2 9.81

0.31855 kg m 2

Example 8.2

Solution

Principle of Impulse and Momentum

We have

m(v Ax )1 Fx dt m(v Ax ) 2

t2

t1

0 Ax (2) 0

m(v Ay )1 Fy dt m(v Ay ) 2

t2

t1

I A1 M A dt I A2

t2

t1

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 8.2

Solution

Principle of Impulse and Momentum

Solving,

Ax 0

Ay 150 N

2 116.2 rad / s

Example 8.3

which is attached to a cord which is wrapped around

the periphery of a 20-kg disk that has a moment of

inertia IA = 0.40 kg.m2. If the block is initially moving

downward with a speed of 2 m/s, determine its

speed in 3 s.

25V2

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Example 8.3

Solution

Free Body Diagrams

All the forces are constant since the weight of the

block causes the motion.

The downward motion of the block, vB, causes ω of

the disk to be clockwise.

Example 8.3

Solution

Principle of Impulse and Momentum

We can eliminate Ax and Ay from the analysis by

applying the angular impulse and momentum about

point A.

Disk

( ) I A M A dt I A2

0.40(1 ) T (3)(0.2) (0.4)2

Example 8.3

Solution

Cylinder

mB (vB )1 Fy dt mB (vB ) 2

6(2) T (3) 58.86(3) 6(vB ) 2

Kinematics

Since ω = vB/r then ω1 = 2/0.2 = 10 rad/s and ω2 =

(vB)2/0.2 = 5(vB)2

Substituting and solving the equations,

(vB )2 13.0 m / s

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

8.3 Conservation of Momentum

When the sum of all the linear impulses acting on

the system of connected rigid bodies is zero, the

linear momentum of the system is conserved.

syst . linear syst . linear

momentum1 momentum 2

This equation is the conservation of linear

momentum.

Can be applied when the linear impulse is

small/non impulsive in a specific direction

8.3 Conservation of Momentum

momentum1 momentum 2

8.3 Conservation of Momentum

Angular momentum is conserved about the

system’s center of mass G when the sum of all

the angular impulses is zero.

momentum O1 momentum O 2

Total Momentum After Collision = Total Momentum Before Collision

8.3 Conservation of Momentum

Free-body Diagram

Classify each of the applied forces as being

either “impulsive” or “non-impulsive”.

From FBD, the conservation of linear momentum

applies when no external impulsive forces act on

the body or system in that direction.

The conservation of angular momentum applies

at the mass center G when all external impulsive

forces acting on the body or system create zero

moment.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

8.3 Conservation of Momentum

Conservation of Momentum

Apply the conservation of linear or angular

momentum in the appropriate directions.

Kinematics

If the motion appears to be complicated,

kinematics (velocity) diagrams may be helpful in

obtaining the necessary kinematics relations.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

v = 5.0 m/s

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