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Chapter 8

Planar Kinetics of a Rigid Body: Impulse and Momentum


Dr. Voon Chun Hong
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Chapter Objectives

 Develop formulations for the linear and angular


momentum of a body
 Apply the principles of linear and angular impulse
and momentum to solve rigid-body planar kinetic
problems that involve force, velocity, and time
 Discuss application of the conservation of
momentum

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd


Chapter Outline

1. Linear and Angular Momentum


2. Principle of Impulse and Momentum
3. Conservation of Momentum

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8.1 Linear and Angular Momentum

 We will assume the body is symmetric with


respect to an inertial x-y reference plane
Linear Momentum
 The linear momentum of a rigid body is
determined by L = ∑mivi

 Since ∑mivi = mvG, L  mv G

 This equation states that the body’s linear


momentum is a vector quantity having a
magnitude mvG, and a direction defined by vG

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8.1 Linear and Angular Momentum

Angular Momentum
 Consider the body subjected to general planar
motion
 Arbitrary point P has a velocity vP, and body has
an angular velocity ω
 The velocity of the ith particle is
vi  v P  vi / P  v P    r

 The angular momentum is


H P i  r  mi vi
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8.1 Linear and Angular Momentum

Angular Momentum
 Using Cartesian vectors,

H P i k  mi xi  yj (vP ) x i  (vP ) y j  k  xi  yj


H P i  mi y(vP ) x  mi x(vP ) y  mir 2

 Letting mi → dm and integrating over the entire


mass m of the body,
 m

H P    y dm (vP ) x   x dm(v )   r dm
m
P y
m
2

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8.1 Linear and Angular Momentum

Angular Momentum
The last integral represents the body’s moment of
inertia computed about the z axis, IP = ∫r2 dm
H P   y m ( v P ) x  x m ( v P ) y  I P

 Equation can be reduced to a


simpler form if point P coincides
with the mass center G for the
body where
x  y0
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8.1 Linear and Angular Momentum

Angular Momentum
 Thus H G  I G
 It states that the angular momentum of the body
computed about G is equal to the product of
moment of inertia of the body about an axis
passing through G and the body’s angular
velocity.
 Hp can also written as

H P   ym(vG ) x  x m(vG ) y  I G

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8.1 Linear and Angular Momentum

Translation
 When a rigid body of mass m is subjected to
rectilinear or curvilinear translation, its mass
center has a velocity of vG = v and ω = 0
 The linear momentum and the angular
momentum computed about G is
L  mvG
HG  0
 Since d is the moment arm,
HA = (d)(mvG)

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8.1 Linear and Angular Momentum

Rotation About a Fixed Axis


 When a rigid body is rotating about a fixed axis
passing through point O, the linear momentum
and the angular momentum about G are
L  mvG
H G  I G
 Noting that L (or vG) is always
perpendicular to rG,

 H O  I G  rG (mvG )

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8.1 Linear and Angular Momentum

Rotation About a Fixed Axis


 Equation can be simplified by substituting
vG = rGω, and using parallel-axis theorem
 Hence,
H O  I O

General Plane Motion


 When a rigid body is subjected
to general plane motion,
L  mvG
H G  I G
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8.1 Linear and Angular Momentum

General Plane Motion


 When angular momentum is computed about a
point A located either on or off the body,

 H A  I G  (d )(mvG )

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8.2 Principle of Impulse and Momentum

Principle of Linear Impulse and Momentum


 The equation of translational motion for a rigid
body can be written as ∑F = maG = m (dvG/dt)
 Since the mass of the body is constant,
d
F  dt
(mv G )

 Multiplying both sides by dt and integrating from t


= t1, vG = (vG)1 to t = t2, vG = (vG)2 yields


t2
F dt  m( vG ) 2  m( vG )1
t1

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8.2 Principle of Impulse and Momentum

Principle of Linear Impulse and Momentum


 This equation is referred to as the principle of
linear impulse and momentum.

 It states that the sum of all impulses created by


the external force system which acts on the body
during the time interval t1 to t2 equal to the
change in the linear momentum of the body
during the time interval.

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8.2 Principle of Impulse and Momentum

Principle of Angular Impulse and Momentum


 If the body has general plane motion we can
write ∑MG = IGα = IG(dω/dt)
 Since the moment of inertia is constant,
d
 M G  dt ( I G )
 Multiplying both sides by dt and integrating from t
= t1, ω = ω1 to t = t2, ω = ω2 gives


t2
M G dt  I G2  I G1
t1

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8.2 Principle of Impulse and Momentum

Principle of Angular Impulse and Momentum


 In a similar manner, for rotation about a fixed
axis passing through point O, ∑MO = IOα when
integrated becomes


t2
M O dt  I O2  I O1
t1

 Both equations are referred to as the principle of


angular impulse and momentum.
 They state that the sum of the angular impulses
acting on the body during the time interval t1 to t2
is equal to the change in the body’s angular
momentum during this time interval.
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8.2 Principle of Impulse and Momentum

Principle of Angular Impulse and Momentum


 To summarize the preceding concepts,

m(vGx )1    Fx dt  m(vGx ) 2
t2

t1

m(vGy )1    Fy dt  m(vGy ) 2
t2

t1

I G1    M G dt I G2
t2

t1

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8.2 Principle of Impulse and Momentum

Principle of Linear Impulse and Momentum

+ =

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8.2 Principle of Impulse and Momentum

Principle of Angular Impulse and Momentum


 For system of connected bodies

 syst .linear   syst .linear   syst .linear 


       
 momentum  x1  impulse  x (1 2)  momentum  x 2
 syst .linear   syst .linear   syst .linear 
       
 momentum  y1  impulse  y (1 2)  momentum  y 2
 syst . angular   syst . angular   syst . angular 
       
 momentum O1  impulse O (1 2)  momentum O 2

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8.2 Principle of Impulse and Momentum

Procedure for Analysis


Free Body Diagram
 Establish x, y, z inertial frame of reference and
draw the free-body diagram.
 Establish the direction and sense of the initial
and final velocity of the body’s mass center, vG,
and the body’s angular velocity ω
 Assume that the sense of its components is in
the direction of the positive inertial coordinates if
any of these two is unknown.
 Compute the moment of inertia IG or IO
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8.2 Principle of Impulse and Momentum

Procedure for Analysis


Principle of Impulse and Momentum
 Apply the three scalar equations of impulse and
momentum.
 The angular momentum of a rigid body rotating
about a fixed axis is the moment of mvG plus IGω
about the axis.
 All the forces acting on the body’s free-body
diagram will create an impulse.

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8.2 Principle of Impulse and Momentum
Procedure for Analysis
Principle of Impulse and Momentum
 Forces that are functions of time must be integrated to
obtain the impulse.
 Principle of angular impulse and momentum is used to
eliminate unknown impulsive forces that are parallel or
pass through a common axis.
Kinematics
 If more than 3 equations are needed, we relate the
velocity of the body’s mass center to the body’s angular
velocity using kinematics.
 Kinematic (velocity) diagrams are helpful in obtaining the
necessary relation.

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Example 8.2

The 100-N disk is assumed to be uniform and is pin


supported at its center. If it is acted upon by a
constant couple moment of 6 N.m and a force of 50
N which is applied to a cord wrapped around its
periphery, determine the angular velocity of the disk
two seconds after starting from rest. Also, what are
the force components of reaction at the pin?

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 8.2

Solution
Free Body Diagrams
The loading causes the disk to rotate clockwise.
The moment of inertia of the disk about its fixed axis
of rotation is
1 2 1  100 
I A  mr   (0.25)
2

2 2  9.81 
 0.31855 kg  m 2

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Example 8.2

Solution
Principle of Impulse and Momentum
We have
 m(v Ax )1    Fx dt  m(v Ax ) 2
t2

t1

0  Ax (2)  0
  m(v Ay )1    Fy dt  m(v Ay ) 2
t2

t1

0  Ay(2)  100(2)  50(2)  0


  I A1    M A dt  I A2
t2

t1

0  6(2)  [50(2)]( 0.25)  0.318552


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Example 8.2

Solution
Principle of Impulse and Momentum
Solving,
Ax  0
Ay  150 N
2  116.2 rad / s

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Example 8.3

The block has a mass of 6 kg. It is attached to a cord


which is attached to a cord which is wrapped around
the periphery of a 20-kg disk that has a moment of
inertia IA = 0.40 kg.m2. If the block is initially moving
downward with a speed of 2 m/s, determine its
speed in 3 s.

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25V2
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Example 8.3

Solution
Free Body Diagrams
All the forces are constant since the weight of the
block causes the motion.
The downward motion of the block, vB, causes ω of
the disk to be clockwise.

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Example 8.3

Solution
Principle of Impulse and Momentum
We can eliminate Ax and Ay from the analysis by
applying the angular impulse and momentum about
point A.

Disk

( ) I A    M A dt  I A2
0.40(1 )  T (3)(0.2)  (0.4)2

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Example 8.3

Solution
Cylinder
  mB (vB )1    Fy dt  mB (vB ) 2
 6(2)  T (3)  58.86(3)  6(vB ) 2

Kinematics
Since ω = vB/r then ω1 = 2/0.2 = 10 rad/s and ω2 =
(vB)2/0.2 = 5(vB)2
Substituting and solving the equations,
(vB )2  13.0 m / s
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8.3 Conservation of Momentum

Conservation of Linear Momentum


 When the sum of all the linear impulses acting on
the system of connected rigid bodies is zero, the
linear momentum of the system is conserved.
 syst . linear   syst . linear 
      
 momentum1  momentum 2
 This equation is the conservation of linear
momentum.
 Can be applied when the linear impulse is
small/non impulsive in a specific direction

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8.3 Conservation of Momentum

Conservation of Linear Momentum

 syst . linear   syst . linear 


      
 momentum1  momentum 2

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8.3 Conservation of Momentum

Conservation of Angular Momentum


 Angular momentum is conserved about the
system’s center of mass G when the sum of all
the angular impulses is zero.

 syst . angular   syst . angular 


    
 momentum O1  momentum O 2

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Total Momentum After Collision = Total Momentum Before Collision

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8.3 Conservation of Momentum

Procedure for Analysis


Free-body Diagram
 Classify each of the applied forces as being
either “impulsive” or “non-impulsive”.
 From FBD, the conservation of linear momentum
applies when no external impulsive forces act on
the body or system in that direction.
 The conservation of angular momentum applies
at the mass center G when all external impulsive
forces acting on the body or system create zero
moment.
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8.3 Conservation of Momentum

Procedure for Analysis


Conservation of Momentum
 Apply the conservation of linear or angular
momentum in the appropriate directions.

Kinematics
 If the motion appears to be complicated,
kinematics (velocity) diagrams may be helpful in
obtaining the necessary kinematics relations.

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v = 5.0 m/s

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd