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# UNDERGROUND TUNNEL NETWORKS

(HYPERLOOP)

## Course staff Submitted by

Mohamed Sabith
Mr.Y.Ibrahim (160011601048)
HYPERLOOP
• A concept for afifth mode of transport
after planes, trains, cars and boats.

## THE • Cheaper,faster,less environmental footprint.

HYPERLOOP
• Inflection point of about 1500 km afterwhich air
travel becomes faster andcheaper.
ELONMUSK

## "When a distinguished but elderly scientist states that something is

possible, he is almost certainly right. When he states that something is
impossible, he is very probably wrong".
-Clarke’s First Law
THE CONCEPT
• Low pressure tube with capsules that move back andforth
throughout the length of the tube.
• Accelerated via a linear magnetic accelerator.
• Supported on a cushion of air.
• Proposed route from LosAngeles to San Fransisco (approx. 560 km).
• To be covered in just 35 minutes, with capsules leaving endstations
every 2 minutes.
THE CONCORDEPART
THE CONCORDEPART

## • Streamlined shape reduces drag.

• Low pressure in the tube (100 Pa) reduces drag further.
PROBLEM OF CHOKED AIRFLOW
• Kantrowitz limit gives the top speed for a given tube to pod area
ratio, above which flow will be choked.
• Build up of air in front of capsule and subsequent increase in
resistance.

• Fan and compressor in the front compresses this air and routesit
to the rear via a bypasstunnel.
• This air expands in the nozzle at the back, also providingadditional
thrust.
THE RAIL GUNPART
THE RAIL GUNPART

## • Magnetic linear accelerators present at various

locations – rotor on the capsule, stator fixed to the
tube.
• Route divided into sections with speeds of 300 mph,
555 mph, 760 mph.
• Maximum linear acceleration of 1g achievedwhile
accelerating from 300 to 760 mph.
• Smaller turning radius implies a lower speed, such
that centripetal acceleration is not more than0.5g.
THE AIR HOCKEYTABLEPART
THE AIR HOCKEY TABLEPART

## • Part of the compressed air is rerouted to air bearings.

• Known as external pressure (EP) bearing and effective
when capsule is stationary or moving at very high
speeds.
• Each ski is integrated into a mechanical suspension.
• 28 such air bearing skis.
• Additional lift is provided aerodynamically – frontedge is
higher than the rear edge (at an angle of0.05º).
• Viscous interactions generate pressure differential to
provide lift.

• Safe
• Fast
• Low cost
• Immune to weather
• Energy saving
• Sustainably self-powering
• Resistant to earthquakes
• Not disruptive tothose along the route
MAJORCONCERNS

## • In some parts, total acceleration experienced by the

passenger will be more than 1g, taking the resultant of
linear and centripetal acceleration.
• Commercial aircrafts accelerate at approximately 0.25g,
roller coasters at (4-6)g.
• Uneven shear stress markings were seen on the outside
of the capsule body duringsimulation.
• Suggestion:Air bearings on top of the pod to improve
stability and help the pod staybalanced.