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Physics

Physics

Deals with the interaction of matter,


force, and energy
Classical Physics Modern Physics
Mechanics Nuclear Physics
Heat & General & Special
Thermodynamics Relativity
Optics Particle Physics
Electricity & Magnetism Quantum Mechanics
Wave motion & Sound
Classical Physics – deals with macroscopic
objects moving at speeds very small
compared to the speed of light in
vacuum

Mechanics – deals with motion, force, work,


energy, and fluids
Heat and Thermodynamics – deals with the
effect of heat when added or removed
from a system , the methods of heat
transfer, and the transformation of heat
energy to mechanical energy or work
and vice versa

Optics – deals with the study of light and its


properties
Electricity and Magnetism– deals with
phenomena associated with electrical
charges (whether at rest or moving)
magnetism and relationship between
electricity and magnetism

Wave motion and Sounds - deals with


properties, transmission, and perception
of different types of waves
Modern Physics

Nuclear Physics- deals with properties of and


the reactions within the atomic nucleus

General Relativity- tells how matter curves


space-time and how the curvature of
space-time dictates the trajectory of
matter and light
Special Relativity– deals with phenomena
associated when an object moves with
speeds approaching the speed of light
in vacuum
Particle Physics- deals with the building
blocks of matter called elementary
particles
Quantum Mechanics- deals with the nature
and behavior of matter and energy on
the atomic and subatomic levels
The Measuring Process
Measurement – the process of comparing
something with a standard
- to carry out measurements, a
system of standards and a system of units
should be defined.
Two Systems of Units:
1. Metric System/ International System of
Units/ SI Units
- the system of units that the General
Conference on Weights and Measures has
agreed upon and is legally enforced in almost
all parts of the world.
- two variations: mks and cgs systems
2. English System
- fps system
Physical Quantities
a. Fundamental Quantities
- basic quantities which are independent of
one another
(Length-m, Mass-kg, Time-s, Temperature-K, Electric
current-A, Luminous intensity-cd, Amount of
substance-mol)

b. Derived Quantities
- combinations of fundamental quantities
Scientific Notation and Unit Conversion
Scientific Notation – a convenient and widely
used method of expressing large and small
numbers.
- any quantity may be
expressed in the form of N x 10n
N = any number between 1 and 10
n = the appropriate power of 10
Sample Problem
Express the following in scientific notation.
1. The speed of light is approximately 300 000 000
m/s.
Answer: 3 x 108 m/s
2. The mass of a strand of hair is approximately
0.000 000 62 kg.
Answer: 6.2 x 10-7 kg
Practice Exercise

Express (a) 0.000 646 and (b) 5 430 000


in scientific notation.
a.) 6.46 x 10-4

b.) 5.43 x 106


In expressing SI measurements in scientific
notation, the SI prefixes are used to denote decimal
multiples and submultiples of the SI units.
SI Prefixes
SI Prefix Symbol Multiplier SI Prefix Symbol Multiplier
yotta- Y 1024 yocto- y 10-24
zeta- Z 1021 zepto- z 10-21
exa- E 1018 atto- a 10-18
peta- P 1015 femto- f 10-15
tera- T 1012 pico- p 10-12
giga- G 109 nano- n 10-9
SI Prefixes
SI Prefix Symbol Multiplier SI Prefix Symbol Multiplier
mega- M 106 micro- µ 10-6
kilo- k 103 milli- m 10-3
hecto- h 102 centi- c 10-2
deca- da 101 deci- d 10-1
Sample Problems
1. Convert (a) 55 km to meters and (b) 12 g to
kilograms. Express your answers in scientific
notation. a.) 5.5 x 104 m b.) 1.2 x 10-2 kg
2. The SI unit of force is the Newton, represented by
a capital letter N. One newton of force gives a 1.0
kg body an acceleration of 1.0 m/s2. 1 N is equal
to 1 kg m/s2. A smaller unit of force is the dyne. 1
dyne is equal to 1 g cm/s2. How many dynes are
there in 1 N?
b.) 1.0 x 105 dynes
Practice Problems
• Length: 1 in = 2.54 cm
1. One light-year (ly) is the distance traveled by
light in a year. Convert one light-year to
meters using 3 x 108 m/s for the speed of
light. (d = vt) 9.4608 x 1015 m

2. How many inches are there in 3 m?


118.11in
3. Convert a density of 2.79 g/cm3 to kg/m3.
2.79 x 103 kg/m3
Practice Problems
• Force: 1 lb = 4.448221615260 newtons
1. How much time would it take for light to travel
10,000 ft? 1.02x10-05s
Practice Problems
• Force: 1 lb = 4.448221615260 newtons

1. How many newtons of force do you need to lift a


34-lb bag? (Intuitively, just assume that you need
exactly the same amount of force as the weight of
the bag). 151.24 N
2. How many inches would light travel in 10 fs?
1.18 x 10-04 inch
ROUNDING OFF NUMBERS
• Know which last digit to keep.
• This last digit remains the same if the next
digit is less than 5.
• Increase this last digit if the next digit is 5 or
more.
Sample Exercises
Round off to the nearest 10:
a. 314234 314230
b. 343 340
c. 5567 5570
d. 245 250
e. 7891 7890
Sample Exercises
Round off to the nearest tenths:
a. 3.1416 3.1000
b. 745.1324 745.1000
c. 8.345 8.300
d. 67.47 67.50
SIGNIFICANT FIGURE
• Refers to the certain digits and the estimated
digit of a measurement.
Rules for Significant Figures
1. Any digit that is not zero is significant.
345 m – 3 sf
35.67 L – 4 sf
2. Leading zero is never significant. Leading zeros
are located to the left of the first nonzero digit.
They simply show where the decimal point is
located.
0.0000003 mm – 1 sf
0.5 cm – 1 sf
3. Zeros in between significant digits are always
significant.
2003 mg – 4 sf 50.0503 – 6 sf
20.5 km – 3 sf
4. Trailing zero is significant only if the decimal point is
identified or if specified by a bar above the last zero
a. When there is no decimal point, the last zeros
are not significant as they only indicate where the
decimal point is to be located.
2050 days – 3 sf
1000 m – 1 sf
b. When the decimal point is indicated:
b.1 For numbers greater than 1, all the trailing zeros
to the right of the decimal point are significant.
10.500 km – 5 sf
2050.0000 days – 8 sf
1000.00 m – 6 sf
b.2 For numbers less than 1, only the trailing zeros at
the end of the number or the zeros in between
nonzero digits are significant.
0.07070 km – 4 sf
0.010 mg – 2 sf
Exercises: Determine the significant figures in
the following measurement. Identify the rule
number you applied in determining the sf.

1.) 0.008 008 700 kg 7 sf --- Rule 4 b. 2

2.) 10.00100 m 7 sf --- Rule 4 b. 1


3.) 1.0000 cm 5 sf --- Rule 4 b. 1
4.) 46 005 sec 5 sf --- Rule 3

5.) 1 203.07 in 6 sf --- Rule 3


Exercises: Determine the significant figures in
the following measurement. Identify the rule
number you applied in determining the sf.

6.) 300 400. km 6 sf --- Rule 4 a


7.) 50 000 yrs 1 sf --- Rule 4 a
8.) 10. days 2 sf --- Rule 4 b1
9.) 0.000 083 mm 2 sf --- Rule 2
10.) 639983431765 cm/day 12 sf --- Rule 1
Determine the number of significant figures
in the following measurement.
1. 408 volts 3 sf
2. 0.035 hr 2 sf
3. 5.65 m 3 sf

4. 150,000,000 years 2 sf

5. 23.900000 cm/s 8 sf
6. 0.03500 J 4 sf

7. 835.750 Coloumb 6 sf

8. 120500 Ohms 4 sf
9. 700 145 µm 6 sf
10. 0.06130 N 4 sf
Write the number of significant figures and
express in scientific notation:
a. 85 430 000 = 4 sf 8.543 x 107
b. 0.000587 = 3 sf 5.87 x 10-4
c. 30 820 000 = 4 sf 3.082 x 107
d. 0.00030263 = 5 sf 3.0263 x 10-4
e. 21 860 000 000 = 4 sf 2.186 x 1010
f. 0.000 000 000 8 = 1 sf 8 x 10-10
g. 3452.123 = 7 sf 3.452123 x 103
QUIZ
A. Identify what is being described.
1. Deals with macroscopic objects moving at
speeds very small compared to the speed of
light in vacuum.
2. Deals with properties of and the reactions
within the atomic nucleus
3. Deals with phenomena associated with
electrical charges (whether at rest or moving)
magnetism and relationship between
electricity and magnetism
4. Deals with the study of building blocks of
matter called elementary particles
5. Deals with phenomena associated when an
object moves with speeds approaching the
speed of light in vacuum
6. - 7. What are the two systems of units?
8. -10. Write three examples of fundamental
quantities.
B. Calculate the following: Follow the rules of sf.
1. How much time would it take for light to
travel 10.0 x 103 ft? (3pts)
2. Convert 2, 777, 000 mm to foot. Express
your answer in scientific notation. (5pts)
3. Convert the density of certain material
which is 5.25 x 10-12 kg/m3 to cg/cm3. (4pts)
4. How many inches would light travel in 10.0
fs? (3pts)
A. Answer
1. Classical Physics
2. Nuclear Physics
3. Electricity and Magnetism
4. Particle Physics
5. Special Relativity
6. -7 Metric System & English System
8. -10 Length, Mass, Time, Temperature,
Electric current, Luminous intensity, Amount
of substance
B.

1.) 1.016 x 10-5 s 1.0 x 10-5 s

2.) 9,110.8925 ft 9111 ft

3.) 5.25 x 10-13 cg/cm3

4.) 1.1811 x 10-4 inch 1.2 x 10-4 inch