Sunteți pe pagina 1din 54

CHEMISTRY

for
Engineering
Prof. Ruth T. Libag,
MAE Chem, RMT, LPT
CHEMISTRY LAND
DEFINITION

branch of science concerned


with the properties, composition,
and structure of substances and
the changes they undergo when
they combine or react under
specified conditions.
Importance of Chemistry

1. It provides men the


basic necessities in life
like shelter, food and
clothing.
Importance of Chemistry
2. It provides men luxuries in life.
– Convenient transportation
– Advance and fast means of
communication
– Use of computers
– Use of cosmetics,perfumes, etc…
Importance of Chemistry
3. Researchers in chemistry help improve the
synthesis of chemicals needed to combat
disease such as antibiotics, anesthetics,
antiseptics, hormones and others.
Importance of Chemistry
4. It explains the composition of major
classes of foods and their nutritional
values
Importance of Chemistry
5. It helps in the advancement of scientific
and technological studies like
telecommunication systems and
computer studies.
Importance of Chemistry
6. It enhances the
awareness on
how the body
works and on
the chemical
changes that
occur within the
body system.
7. It leads to the discovery of
organophosphorus pesticides which
along with other pesticides, reduce crop
losses.
Branches of Chemistry
1. Inorganic Chemistry
the study of all the elements
and their compounds with
the exception of carbon and
its compounds
investigates the
characteristics of
substances that are not
organic, such as nonliving
matter and minerals found in
the earth's crust.
2. Organic Chemistry
 Branch of
chemistry dealing
with compounds of
carbon.
3. Analytical Chemistry

This kind of chemistry deals mostly


with the composition of substances.

Collection of techniques that allows


exact laboratory examination of a
given sample of material.
Branches of Analytical
Chemistry
1. Qualitative Chemistry
 the atoms and molecules present
are identified, with particular
attention to trace elements.
2. Quantitative Chemistry
 the exact weight of each
constituent is obtained as well
Chemists perform qualitative analysis or
substances in a sample & quantitative
analysis for the amount of each substance.
4.Biochemistry

 encompasses the study of the chemical


nature of living material and of the
chemical transformations that occur within
it.
 a science that is concerned with the
composition and changes in the formation
of living species. This type of chemistry
utilizes the concepts of organic and
physical chemistry to make the world of
living organisms seem much clearer.
Chemists examine fetal fluids for
abnormalities that may indicate a threat to
the health of the fetus.
5. Physical Chemistry
is concerned with the physical
properties of materials, such as their
electrical and magnetic behavior and
their interaction with electromagnetic
fields.
This chemistry is defined as dealing
with the relations between the physical
properties of substances and their
chemical formations along with their
changes.
History of Chemistry

use of fire, cook food and baked


pottery

production of wine

Cosmetics
I. Greek Civilization

Thales

 assumed that all


matter was derived
from water
Democritus

ATOM to be the
simplest unit of
matter

http://www.infinite-energy.com/iemagazine/issue37/mysteries.html
Empedocles

– all matter was


composed of four
elements: fire,
air, water, and
earth.
Aristotle
• four qualities were found in nature:
heat, cold, moisture, and dryness.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristotle
Aristotle’s Concept of the Four
Elements
II. Beginning of Christian Era - End of 17th
Century (Alchemy “al chemia”)

 Alchemists attempted to transmute cheap metals


to gold.
Precursor of Chemistry

Encarta Encyclopedia
Beginning of Christian Era - End of 17th Century
(Alchemy “al chemia”)

Paracelsus – Auroleus Phillipus Theostratus


Bombastus von Hohenheim.
Searched for medicine to cure sickness

http://www.alchemylab.com/paracelsus.htm
• credited with the introduction of opium and
mercury into the arsenal of medicine.
• His works also indicate an advanced
knowledge of the science and principles of
magnetism
• the precursor of chemical pharmacology and
therapeutics and the most original medical
thinker of the sixteenth century."
• Galileo – accurate measurements

•http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Galileo.html
Robert Boyle
disproved Aristotle’s four elements
theory “Skeptical Chemist”
Boyle’s Law

org/wiki/Robert_Boyle
III. End of 17th Century -
Mid 19th Century
(Traditional Chemistry)

George Ernst Stahl – phlogiston theory


Joseph Priestley
• Isolated oxygen by heating mercuric
oxide
Jan Baptista van Helmont –

• kinds of air- like materials “gas”


-Carbon Dioxide

•http://www.crystalinks.com/helmont.html
Antoine Lavoisier
• disproved phlogiston theory
• Father of modern chemistry

•Portrait of Monsieur Lavoisier and his Wife, by Jacques-Louis


David
Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov

• Lomonosov rejected the phlogiston theory, and


anticipated the kinetic theory of gases
•Lomonosov was the first person to record the
freezing of mercury,
• and to hypothesize the existence of an
atmosphere on Venus

• he demonstrated the organic origin


of soil, peat, coal, petroleum, and
amber.

• In 1745 he published a catalogue of


over 3,000 minerals,

• and in 1760 he explained the


formation of icebergs.
John Dalton
- Atomic Theory
Rudjer Joseph Boscovich
-developed the modern atomic theory
IV. Mid 19th Century - Present
(Modern or 20th Century Chemistry)

• Heinrich Geissler – the first


vacuum tube

•http://fys.kuleuven.be/pradem/fysici/Geissler.html
William Crookes
-cathode rays

http://www.chem.ox.ac.uk/icl/heyes/LanthA
ct/Biogs/Crookes.html
Eugene Goldstein –
• discovered proton

Michael Faraday
- Invented the electric motor
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
• x – rays

http://nobelprize.org/physics/laureates/1901/rontgen-bio.html
Henri Becquerel
• spontaneous
radioactivity

•http://nobelprize.org/physics/laureates/1903/becquerel-bio.html
J.J. Thomson
• electron and its properties

•http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blcathoderaytube.html
Robert Andrews Millikan
• mass of an electron

http://nobelprize.org/physics/laureates/1923/millikan-bio.html
James Chadwick
• neutron
Ernest Rutherford –
• three types of
radioactivity
Marie and Pierre Curie
• uranium, thorium, radium &
polonium
Niels Bohr
• Proposed that electrons could only
reside in certain energy levels or
quanta
Enrico Fermi –
• neutron bombardment & nuclear
fission

•http://nobelprize.org/physics/laureates/1938/fermi-bio.html
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev

• periodic law of the properties of the


chemical elements

http://www.chemistry.co.nz/mendeleev.htm
Henry Moseley
• Determined the
atomic numbers of all
the known elements

• Arranged the periodic


table according to
increasing atomic
numbers