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Prof. Ruth T. Libag,

branch of science concerned

with the properties, composition,
and structure of substances and
the changes they undergo when
they combine or react under
specified conditions.
Importance of Chemistry

1. It provides men the

basic necessities in life
like shelter, food and
Importance of Chemistry
2. It provides men luxuries in life.
– Convenient transportation
– Advance and fast means of
– Use of computers
– Use of cosmetics,perfumes, etc…
Importance of Chemistry
3. Researchers in chemistry help improve the
synthesis of chemicals needed to combat
disease such as antibiotics, anesthetics,
antiseptics, hormones and others.
Importance of Chemistry
4. It explains the composition of major
classes of foods and their nutritional
Importance of Chemistry
5. It helps in the advancement of scientific
and technological studies like
telecommunication systems and
computer studies.
Importance of Chemistry
6. It enhances the
awareness on
how the body
works and on
the chemical
changes that
occur within the
body system.
7. It leads to the discovery of
organophosphorus pesticides which
along with other pesticides, reduce crop
Branches of Chemistry
1. Inorganic Chemistry
the study of all the elements
and their compounds with
the exception of carbon and
its compounds
investigates the
characteristics of
substances that are not
organic, such as nonliving
matter and minerals found in
the earth's crust.
2. Organic Chemistry
 Branch of
chemistry dealing
with compounds of
3. Analytical Chemistry

This kind of chemistry deals mostly

with the composition of substances.

Collection of techniques that allows

exact laboratory examination of a
given sample of material.
Branches of Analytical
1. Qualitative Chemistry
 the atoms and molecules present
are identified, with particular
attention to trace elements.
2. Quantitative Chemistry
 the exact weight of each
constituent is obtained as well
Chemists perform qualitative analysis or
substances in a sample & quantitative
analysis for the amount of each substance.

 encompasses the study of the chemical

nature of living material and of the
chemical transformations that occur within
 a science that is concerned with the
composition and changes in the formation
of living species. This type of chemistry
utilizes the concepts of organic and
physical chemistry to make the world of
living organisms seem much clearer.
Chemists examine fetal fluids for
abnormalities that may indicate a threat to
the health of the fetus.
5. Physical Chemistry
is concerned with the physical
properties of materials, such as their
electrical and magnetic behavior and
their interaction with electromagnetic
This chemistry is defined as dealing
with the relations between the physical
properties of substances and their
chemical formations along with their
History of Chemistry

use of fire, cook food and baked


production of wine

I. Greek Civilization


 assumed that all

matter was derived
from water

ATOM to be the
simplest unit of

– all matter was

composed of four
elements: fire,
air, water, and
• four qualities were found in nature:
heat, cold, moisture, and dryness.
Aristotle’s Concept of the Four
II. Beginning of Christian Era - End of 17th
Century (Alchemy “al chemia”)

 Alchemists attempted to transmute cheap metals

to gold.
Precursor of Chemistry

Encarta Encyclopedia
Beginning of Christian Era - End of 17th Century
(Alchemy “al chemia”)

Paracelsus – Auroleus Phillipus Theostratus

Bombastus von Hohenheim.
Searched for medicine to cure sickness
• credited with the introduction of opium and
mercury into the arsenal of medicine.
• His works also indicate an advanced
knowledge of the science and principles of
• the precursor of chemical pharmacology and
therapeutics and the most original medical
thinker of the sixteenth century."
• Galileo – accurate measurements

Robert Boyle
disproved Aristotle’s four elements
theory “Skeptical Chemist”
Boyle’s Law

III. End of 17th Century -
Mid 19th Century
(Traditional Chemistry)

George Ernst Stahl – phlogiston theory

Joseph Priestley
• Isolated oxygen by heating mercuric
Jan Baptista van Helmont –

• kinds of air- like materials “gas”

-Carbon Dioxide

Antoine Lavoisier
• disproved phlogiston theory
• Father of modern chemistry

•Portrait of Monsieur Lavoisier and his Wife, by Jacques-Louis

Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov

• Lomonosov rejected the phlogiston theory, and

anticipated the kinetic theory of gases
•Lomonosov was the first person to record the
freezing of mercury,
• and to hypothesize the existence of an
atmosphere on Venus

• he demonstrated the organic origin

of soil, peat, coal, petroleum, and

• In 1745 he published a catalogue of

over 3,000 minerals,

• and in 1760 he explained the

formation of icebergs.
John Dalton
- Atomic Theory
Rudjer Joseph Boscovich
-developed the modern atomic theory
IV. Mid 19th Century - Present
(Modern or 20th Century Chemistry)

• Heinrich Geissler – the first

vacuum tube

William Crookes
-cathode rays
Eugene Goldstein –
• discovered proton

Michael Faraday
- Invented the electric motor
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
• x – rays
Henri Becquerel
• spontaneous

J.J. Thomson
• electron and its properties

Robert Andrews Millikan
• mass of an electron
James Chadwick
• neutron
Ernest Rutherford –
• three types of
Marie and Pierre Curie
• uranium, thorium, radium &
Niels Bohr
• Proposed that electrons could only
reside in certain energy levels or
Enrico Fermi –
• neutron bombardment & nuclear

Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev

• periodic law of the properties of the

chemical elements
Henry Moseley
• Determined the
atomic numbers of all
the known elements

• Arranged the periodic

table according to
increasing atomic