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Challenges Facing Urban India: Housing &

Sanitation For the Urban Poor

Dr. Harjit S. Anand

Secretary
Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation
Government of India
Ph: + 91 9818112427
email: secy-muepa@nic.in/hs.anand@yahoo.com
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Urban India: Statistical Profile 2001

  
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Urban India: Slums & Poverty Scenario

  
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Poverty and Housing needs

   

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èotal Housing Shortage
Housing shortage 

    24.71 million
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Additional Housing Requirement 1.82 million

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èotal housing requirement   26.53 Million


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More than 99% shortage is for EWS/‰IG segments

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Integrated package of Housing & Basic Services

a Affordable housing with security of tenure


b Basic physical services
c Basic social services through convergence &
d ‰inkage with urban poverty alleviation.

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URM at a Glance
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Inclusive Planning & Architecture

i. Minimum 25 Sq mtrs Carpet area under BSUP and Covered area


under IHSDP,
ii. Minimum provision of èwo rooms, itchenette, èoilet & Bath,
iii. Vector-free housing layout,
iv. Provision of Basic Physical Amenities: Water Supply,Drainage,
sanitation, Roads/Streets, street ‰ighting, Solid Waste
management & appropriate Green Spaces,
v. Provision of Social Infrastructure: Community Centre, ‰ivelihood
Centre & Informal Sector Market, and
vi. Eco friendly Habitat which promotes Social Cohesiveness.

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Advocacy and
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U èhe Ministry is introducing a new scheme for providing
interest subsidy of 5% on housing loans by banks/HFCs &
MFIs for EWS/‰IG segments of society for construction of
houses
U It is aimed at providing 400,
400,000 Dwelling Units during the
11th
11 th Five Year Plan
Plan..
U èhe total interest subsidy requirements for the construction
of 400,
400,000 houses for EWS/‰IG segments financed during
the next 4 years (2008 12 is projected at Rs
2008--12 Rs.. 1100 crores
crores..

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Mandatory Urban Reforms
Mandatory (U‰B ‰evel Mandatory (State ‰evel
 Adoption of double entry system of  Implementation of decentralisation
accounting measures as envisaged in
Constitution 74th
74th Amendment Act
 Introduction of e-Governance
 Rationalisation of Stamp duty to
 Reform of property tax with GIS-
GIS- bring it down to no more than 5%
based èax Mapping within next 7 years

 Enactment of Community
 Internal earmarking for basic
Participation ‰aw to institutionalise
services to the urban poor
citizen participation & Area Sabha
 Provision of basic services to urban  Assigning or associating elected
poor U‰Bs with ³city planning function´
± Accountability platforms for
parastatals

      °=


Optional Urban Reforms
(State, U‰B ‰evel & Parastatal Agencies

 Revision of bye-
bye-laws to streamline the approval process for
construction
 Simplification of legal and procedural frameworks
 Introduction of Property èitle Certification System in U‰Bs.
U‰Bs.
 Earmarking at least 2020--25
25%% of developed land for EWS and
‰IG category
 Computerised process of registration of land and property
 Revision of bye-
bye-laws to make water conservation measures
in all building
 Bye
Bye-- laws for reuse of recycled water
 Administrative reforms
 Structural reforms
 Encouraging private-
private-public partnership

Urban Infrastructure Challenges ° 


 Initiative
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URM Initiative
Progress as on 31st March 08
CDP All 63 cities have been received and appraised

MOAs 62 MoAs signed (1 pending ± Damshedpur

DPRS received 713 DPRs

Projects approved by CSMC 324 Projects

èotal Value of Projects Rs. 30,135.23 Cr


approved

ACA Committed Rs. 14,612.46 Cr

ACA released Rs. 3,882.58 Cr

#   1   °


Progress of Reforms
State level U‰B level
 Maharashtra has repealed Urban ‰and 33 Cities have undertaken Internal
Ceiling and Regulation Act, Andhra Earmarking of Funds for Services to
Pradesh also. West Bengal has Urban Poor
committed to repeal U‰CRA next year, Improved Financial Management -14
 26 States have repealed U‰CRA till cities have accomplished Double Entry
date. Accrual Based Accounting System
 Assam, èripura, Gujarat & Maharashtra e-Governance reform accomplished in
have enacted Public disclosure ‰aw, 7 cities (Hyderabad, Vishakapatnam,
whereas èamil
adu and Chandigarh Bhopal, Coimbatore, Madurai, Asansol,
are in progress olkata
 Assam & Gujarat have enacted 10 Cities have improved property tax
Community Participation ‰aw coverage to above 85 %.
 States of Sikkim, Goa, Puducherry,
Dharkhand and èripura have already
rationalised Stamp Duty to 5 % or
below.

Urban Infrastructure Challenges °]


3-
 

 

 #4

William Shakespeare



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Poverty Alleviation Programmes
èhe Historical Perspective
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Urban ‰ivelihoods  
Employment Generation and Employability

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èhe Right to Shelter - Converting dream into reality««


Social Housing

 èhe two lowest monthly per capita


expenditure classes
 Saving capacity of EWS & ‰IG
 èhe subsidy gap &
 Converting need to demand.

èhe Right to Shelter - 


 

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Innovative banking and financial
instruments
Housing Bonds ± the Sudarshan Chakra
  
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èhe Right to Shelter - 
 

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Regulation of Real Estate Development

 Safeguarding the rights of an Allottee vis-à-vis


cost escalation,
 Safeguarding the rights of an Allottee in relation to
time over-runs,
 Safeguarding the Allottee in relation to provision
of green spaces and social infrastructure &
 Safeguarding the Allottee in relation to a healthy
and clean environment combined with basic
sports facilities.

èhe Right to Shelter - 


 

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eed for an Urban Regulator

 Model guidelines from the Central


Government,
 States to pass legislation for setting up a
State Urban Regulator,
 Regulator to mediate disputes between
U‰Bs and Parastatals &
 Regulator to ensure Provision of land at
institutional rates for ³no profit no loss´
housing.

èhe Right to Shelter - 


 

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Planning & Investments
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$II will give you a èalisman. Whenever you are in doubt or when the self
$
becomes too much with you, apply the following test:
Recall the face of the poorest and weakest man whom you may have seen
and ask yourself if the step you contemplate is going to be of any use to him.
Will he gain anything by it? Will it restore him to a control over his own life
and destiny? In other word, will it lead to Swaraj for hungry and spiritually
starving millions?
èhen you will find your doubts and yourself melting away.´

~ Mahatma Gandhi

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